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Turbulent flow analysis of a flattened tube in- plane curved solar collector using Titanium oxide nanofluid

  • A. SacithraEmail author
  • A. Manivannan
Original
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

The present study deals with the experimental investigation on the performance of a solar water heater consisting of a flattened tube absorber with a spiral configuration. The analysis is carried out by using water and Titanium oxide nanofluid of 0.1% concentration as the working fluid adopting forced circulation for various flow rates of 0.05 kg/s, 0.066 kg/s, 0.083 kg/s. The effect of mass flow rate on the flatness of the tube and spiral configuration of the absorber is investigated. The outlet fluid temperature, instantaneous efficiency, Reynolds number, Nusselt number, and heat transfer coefficient, friction factor, and Dean number are the parameters considered in this analysis. The results show that there is a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient of 22% for TiO2 (φ = 0.1) nanofluid compared to water. The results indicate that the instantaneous efficiency increases by 7.5% for TiO2 nanofluid. The highest outlet temperature of 67 °C was obtained for a mass flow rate of 0.066 kg/s. The removal energy parameter FRUL increases by 20% and the absorbed energy parameter FR(τα) increases by 5% for TiO2 nanofluid comparing with water. The values of the Nusselt number, friction factor and dean number obtained experimentally are compared with numerical correlation and the deviation is found to be within ±3% to ±8%. The Dean number is calculated for different curvature ratio of κ1 = 0.141, κ2 = 0.070 and κ3 = 0.047.Increase dean number of 18% with increase in curvature ratio is found.

Keywords

Flattened tube Nanofluid Heat transfer Reynolds number Nusselt number 

Nomenclature

As

Heat transfer surface m2

C

Collector tilt factor degree

Cp

Specific heat of Fluid kJ/kgK

D

Dean Number dimensionless

DH

Hydraulic Diameter of tube m

f

Friction factor

F

Wind Factor W/m2oC

e

mean-plate temperature factor oC

Gt

Incident solar radiation W/m2

h

Heat transfer coefficient W/m2oC

hw

Convective heat transfer coefficient W/m2oC

k

Thermal conductivity W/mK

ki

Thermal conductivity of insulation W/mK

L

Length of the absorber tube m

\( \dot{\mathrm{m}} \)

Mass flow rate of water kg

N

Number of glazing

Nu

Nusselt number Dimensionless

∆P

Pressure drop kPa

Pr

Prandtl number Dimensionless

Q

Useful heat gain W

Re

Reynolds number Dimensionless

Rc

Radius of curvature m

Ta

Ambient temperature °C

Ti

Fluid inlet temperature °C

To

Fluid Outlet temperature °C

Tp

Mean absorber plate temperature °C

UL

Loss coefficient W/m2oC

xi

Thickness of insulation m

Greek symbols

μ

Dynamic viscosity Ns/m2

β

Tilt angle degree

δ

Thickness of absorber plate m

ρ

Density kg/m2

ϕ

Nanoparticles volume concentration %

η

Collector efficiency %

τα

Transmittance-absorptance product

εp

Emittance of plate

εg

Emittance of glass cover

σ

Stefan-Boltzmann constant - 5.67*108 W/m2K4

Subscripts

bf

Base fluid

nf

Nanofluid

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRegional Campus of Anna UniversityTirunelveliIndia

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