Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of MgO nanofluid in a double pipe heat exchanger

  • H. Arya
  • M. M. SarafrazEmail author
  • O. Pourmehran
  • M. Arjomandi


The present work aims to investigate the plausible application of MgO-ethylene glycol as a heat transfer fluid in a double-pipe heat exchanger. The nanofluid was prepared using a two-step method at weight concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. The test rig provided conditions to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop and friction factor of the system. Influence of the different operating parameters such as flow rate, mass concentration of nanoparticles and inlet temperature of nanofluid to the heat exchanger on the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop was experimentally investigated. Results showed that the heat transfer coefficient within the heat exchanger can be enhanced by 27% for wt.% = 0.3 in comparison with the base fluid (ethylene glycol). It was also found that the presence of MgO nanoparticles increased the pressure drop by 35% at wt.% = 0.3. The friction factor of the system decreased nonlinearly with an increase in the Reynold number and it followed the trend of 64/Re equation. An increase in the mass concentration of nanoparticles increased the friction factor and the maximum friction factor enhancement was 32% belonging to the nanofluid with mass concentration of wt.% = 0.3. Likewise, inlet temperature was found to have a very slight influence on the heat transfer coefficient and no effect on the friction factor and pressure drop of the system. The thermo-physical properties of MgO-ethylene glycol nanofluid was also experimentally measured at various temperatures.



Area, m2


Heat capacity,−1.oC−1


Fanning friction factor


Convective heat transfer coefficient, W.m−2. K−1


Thermal conductivity, W.m−1.oC−1


Length, m


Nusselt number


Pressure, Pa


Heat, W


Reynolds number


Temperature, oC


Heat transfer coefficient, W. m−2. K−1


Weight fraction







Base fluid


Heating loop




Cooling loop








Mass flow, kg.s−1



Greek symbols




Authors of this work tend to appreciate Bandar Abbas University for their facilities. Also, one author of this work appreciates the Elite and young researcher club for their financial supports.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of other authors of this manuscript, the corresponding author declares that there is no conflict of interest in this paper. All financial resources were also acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Arya
    • 1
  • M. M. Sarafraz
    • 2
    Email author
  • O. Pourmehran
    • 2
  • M. Arjomandi
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Energy Resource EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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