Modeling of evaporation and condensation processes: a chemical kinetics approach

  • Valeriy A. Vlasov


The processes of evaporation and condensation are considered in the framework of chemical kinetics. At the phenomenological level, the processes of evaporation and condensation were considered using formal kinetics, and at the molecular level, these processes were considered using collision theory. In the framework of formal kinetics, the rate equations for the processes of evaporation and condensation were obtained. In the framework of collision theory, the equations for the rate of evaporation and condensation and for the condensation coefficient were obtained. A comparison of the calculated and available experimental data for the case of evaporation of water into air and for the case of evaporation of metals in a vacuum was made. From these comparisons, the energy characteristics of the surface of water and some metals and the condensation coefficients for these substances were determined.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author declare that he have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Zudin YuB (2018) Non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation processes: analytical solutions. Springer, ChamCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Persad AH, Ward CA (2016) Expressions for the evaporation and condensation coefficients in the Hertz−Knudsen relation. Chem Rev 116:7727–7767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schrage RW (1953) A theoretical study of interphase mass transfer. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kucherov RYa, Rikenglaz LE (1960) On hydrodynamic boundary conditions for evaporation and condensation. J Exp Theor Phys 37:88−89Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kucherov RYa, Rikenglaz LE (1960) On the measurement of the condensation coefficient. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 133:1130–1131 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Labuntsov DA (1967) Analysis of evaporation and condensation processes. Teplofiz Vysok Temper 5:647–654 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muratova TM, Labuntsov DA (1969) Kinetic analysis of evaporation and condensation processes. Teplofiz Vysok Temper 7:959−967 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ward CA, Fang G (1999) Expression for predicting liquid evaporation flux: statistical rate theory approach. Phys Rev E 59:429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bedeaux D, Kjelstrup S (1999) Transfer coefficients for evaporation. Physica A 270:413–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhakhovskii VV, Anisimov SI (1997) Molecular-dynamics simulation of evaporation of a liquid. J Exp Theor Phys 84:734–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kryukov AP, Levashov VYu (2011) About evaporation−condensation coefficients on the vapor−liquid interface of high thermal conductivity matters. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 54:3042–3048CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheng S, Lechman JB, Plimpton SJ, Grest GS (2011) Evaporation of Lennard-Jones fluids. J Chem Phys 134:224704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lofti A, Vrabec J, Fischer J (2014) Evaporation from a free liquid surface. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 73:303–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nagayama G, Takematsu M, Mizuguchi H, Tsuruta T (2015) Molecular dynamics study on condensation/evaporation coefficients of chain molecules at liquid−vapor interface. J Chem Phys 143:014706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hołyst R, Litniewski M, Jakubczyk D (2015) A molecular dynamics test of the Hertz−Knudsen equation for evaporating liquids. Soft Matter 11:7201–7206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nagata Y, Usui K, Bonn M (2015) Molecular mechanism of water evaporation. Phys Rev Lett 115:236102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Penner SS (1952) On the kinetics of evaporation. J Phys Chem 56:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nagayama G, Tsuruta T (2003) A general expression for the condensation coefficient based on transition state theory and molecular dynamics simulation. J Chem Phys 118:1392–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kondepudi D, Prigogine I (2015) Modern thermodynamics: from heat engines to dissipative structures, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Upadhyay SK (2006) Chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics. Springer, Anamaya Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kashchiev D (2000) Nucleation: basic theory with applications. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barnes GT (1986) The effects of monolayers on the evaporation of liquids. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 25:89–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Panin GN, Brezgunov VS (2007) Influence of the salinity of water on its evaporation. Izv Atmos Oceanic Phys 43:663–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Novikov SN, Ermolaeva AI, Timoshenkov SP, Minaev VS (2010) The influence of the supramolecular structure of water on the kinetics of vaporization. Russ J Phys Chem A 84:534–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davies JF, Miles REH, Haddrell AE, Reid JP (2013) Influence of organic films on the evaporation and condensation of water in aerosol. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:8807–8812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borodacheva YuV, Lotkhov VA, Dil’man VV, Kulov NN (2011) Kinetics of the steady-state evaporation of single-component liquids into an inert gas. Theor Found Chem Eng 45:805–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Potkonjak B, Jovanović J, Stanković B, Ostojić S, Adnadjević B (2015) Comparative analyses on isothermal kinetics of water evaporation and hydrogel dehydration by a novel nucleation kinetics model. Chem Eng Res Des 100:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dil’man VV, Lotkhov VA, Kulov NN, Naidenov VI (2000) Evaporation dynamics. Theor Found Chem Eng 34:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dil’man VV, Lotkhov VA (2007) Unsteady-state evaporation kinetics. Dokl Chem 416:257–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kashirskaya OA, Lotkhov VA, Dil’man VV (2010) Difference in the rates of evaporation and condensation in the presence of an inert gas. Theor Found Chem Eng 44:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lide DR (ed) (2009) CRC handbook of chemistry and physics, 90th edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wagner W, Pruβ A (2002) The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. J Phys Chem Ref Data 31:387–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marek R, Straub J (2001) Analysis of the evaporation coefficient and the condensation coefficient of water. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 44:39–53CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Safarian J, Engh TA (2013) Vacuum evaporation of pure metals. Metall Mater Trans A 44:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Smith PN, Ward RG (1966) The evaporation of liquid iron alloys under vacuum. Can Metall Q 5:77–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ogasawara Y, Hadi TS, Maeda M (1998) Rates of evaporation in a vacuum in liquid Ni–Ti alloys. ISIJ Int 38:789–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ewing CT, Stern KH (1975) Vaporization kinetics of solid and liquid silver, sodium chloride, potassium bromide, cesium iodide, and lithium fluoride. J Phys Chem 79:2007–2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yaws CL (2014) Thermophysical properties of chemicals and hydrocarbons, 2nd edn. Gulf Professional Publishing, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alcock CB, Itkin VP, Horrigan MK (1984) Vapour pressure equations for the metallic elements: 298–2500 K. Can Metall Q 23:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Glasstone S, Laidler KJ, Eyring H (1941) The theory of rate processes: the kinetics of chemical reactions, viscosity, diffusion and electrochemical phenomena. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Israelachvili JN (2011) Intermolecular and surface forces, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, Tyumen Scientific CenterSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesTyumenRussia

Personalised recommendations