Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 53, Issue 11, pp 3315–3327 | Cite as

Motion of liquid plugs between vapor bubbles in capillary tubes: a comparison between fluids

  • Rémi Bertossi
  • Vincent Ayel
  • Balkrishna Mehta
  • Cyril Romestant
  • Yves Bertin
  • Sameer Khandekar
Original
  • 142 Downloads

Abstract

Pulsating heat pipes (PHP) are now well-known devices in which liquid/vapor slug flow oscillates in a capillary tube wound between hot and cold sources. In this context, this paper focuses on the motion of the liquid plug, trapped between vapor bubbles, moving in capillary tubes, to try to better understand the thermo-physical phenomena involved in such devices. This study is divided into three parts. In the first part, an experimental study presents the evolution of the vapor pressure during the evaporation process of a liquid thin film deposited from a liquid plug flowing in a heated capillary tube: it is found that the behavior of the generated and removed vapor can be very different, according to the thermophysical properties of the fluids. In the second part, a transient model allows to compare, in terms of pressure and duration, the motion of a constant-length liquid plug trapped between two bubbles subjected to a constant difference of vapor pressure: the results highlight that the performances of the four fluids are also very different. Finally, a third model that can be considered as an improvement of the second one, is also presented: here, the liquid slug is surrounded by two vapor bubbles, one subjected to evaporation, the pressure in both bubbles is now a result of the calculation. This model still allows comparing the behaviors of the fluid. Even if our models are quite far from a complete model of a real PHP, results do indicate towards the applicability of different fluids as suitable working fluids for PHPs, particularly in terms of the flow instabilities which they generate.

List of symbols

Roman symbols

Ca

Capillary number, Ca = μu/σ (−)

D

Diameter (m)

hlv

Latent heat (J kg−1)

L

Length (m)

m

Mass (kg)

P

Pressure (Pa)

\(\dot{Q}\)

Heat power (W)

R

Radius (m)

Re

Reynolds number, Re = ρuD/μ (−)

Rv

Specific gas constant, Rv = R/M (J kg−1 K−1)

t

Time (s)

T

Temperature (K)

u

Velocity (m s−1)

V

Volume (m3)

X

Location of the liquid plug/slug (m)

Greek symbols

ρ

Density (kg m−3)

τ

Time constant (s)/viscous stress per unit volume (Pa m−1)

σ

Surface tension (N m−1)

ν

Kinematic viscosity (m2 s−1)

μ

Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

Subscripts

a/r

Advancing/receding

H

Heated zone

l/v

Liquid/vapor

p

Plug

r

Radiative

sat

Saturation

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the French National Research Agency ANR in the frame of the TDM-AAP project ‘AARDECO’, who supported the experimental work presented in Sect. 1. The authors would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Indo-French Center for Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR/CEFIPRA), New Delhi, in facilitating contacts and interactions between the research groups.

References

  1. 1.
    Charoensawan P, Khandekar S, Groll M, Terdtoon P (2003) Closed loop pulsating heat pipes, part A: parametric experimental investigations. Appl Therm Eng 23:2009–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khandekar S, Panigrahi PK, Lefèvre F, Bonjour J (2010) Local hydrodynamics of flow in a pulsating heat pipe: a review. Front Heat Pipes 1:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Howard J, Walsh P, Walsh E (2011) Prandtl and capillary effects on heat transfer performance within laminar liquid–gas slug flows. Int J Heat Mass Transf 54:4752–4761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thome JR, Dupont V, Jacobi AM (2004) Heat transfer model for evaporation in microchannel. Part I: presentation of the model. Int J Heat Mass Transf 47:3375–3385CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aussilous P, Quéré D (2000) Quick deposition of a fluid on the wall of a tube. Phys Fluids 12:2367–2371CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Han Y, Shikazono N (2009) Measurement of the liquid film thickness in micro tube slug flow. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 30:842–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chauris N, Ayel V, Bertin Y, Romestant C (2015) Evaporation of a liquid film deposited on a capillary heated tube: experimental analysis by infrared thermography of its thermal footprint. Int J Heat Mass Transf 89:492–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ayel V, Bertossi R, Mehta B, Chauris N, Romestant C, Bertin Y (2015) Evaporation of a thin liquid film in a heated capillary tube: experimental results and discussion on the related physical phenomena. In: Proceedings of IX Minsk International seminar “Heat pipes, heat pumps, refrigerators, power sources”, Minsk, Belarus, pp 186–193Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rao M, Lefèvre F, Khandekar S, Bonjour J (2016) Heat and mass transfer mechanisms of a self-sustained thermally driven oscillating liquid–vapor meniscus. Int J Heat Mass Transf 86:519–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fourgeaud L, Ercolani E, Duplat J, Gully P, Nikolayev V (2016) Evaporation-driven dewetting of a liquid film. Phys Rev Fluids 1:041901(R)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Srinivasan V, Marty-Jourjon V, Khandekar S, Lefèvre F, Bonjour J (2015) Evaporation of an isolated liquid plug moving inside a capillary tube. J Heat Mass Transf 89:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vyas S, Khandekar S, Bouamrane N, Lefèvre F, Bonjour J (2015) Motion of an isolated liquid plug inside a capillary tube: effect of contact angle hysteresis. Exp Fluids 56:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abiev R (2015) Effect of contact-angle hysteresis on the pressure drop under slug flow conditions in minichannels and microchannels. Theor Found Chem Eng 59:434–441Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mc Giolla Eain M, Egan V, Howard J, Walsh P, Walsh E, Punch J (2015) Review and extension of pressure drop models applied to Taylor flow regimes. Int J Multiph Flow 68:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walsh P, Walsh E, Muzychka Y (2010) Heat transfer model for gas–liquid slug flows under constant heat flux. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53:3193–3201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buffone C, Sefiane K (2004) IR measurements of interfacial temperature during phase change in a confined environment. Exp Fluid Sci 29:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buffone C, Sefiane K (2008) Controlling thermocapillary convection using external heating: an experimental investigation. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 32:1287–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ayel V, Araneo L, Marzorati P, Romestant C, Bertin Y, Marengo M (2016) Visualizations of the flow patterns in a closed loop flat plate PHP with channel diameter above the critical one and tested under microgravity. In: Joint 18th IHPC and 12th IHPS, Jeju, Korea, June 12–16Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ma H (2015) Oscillating heat pipes, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 141–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Direction de la Recherche et de l’Innovation de l’IPSAIPSAIvry-sur-SeineFrance
  2. 2.Pprime Institut, UPR 3346CNRS – ENSMA – Université de PoitiersFuturoscope-ChasseneuilFrance
  3. 3.Indian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  4. 4.Indian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations