Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 53, Issue 7, pp 2363–2375 | Cite as

Experimental investigation on heat transfer from square jets issuing from perforated nozzles

  • Pullarao Muvvala
  • C. BalajiEmail author
  • S. P. Venkateshan


This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer carried out with square jets issuing from perforated nozzles. This is accomplished by an impinging square jet on a uniformly heated plate of finite thickness (5 mm). The medium under consideration is air. Three different nozzle configurations are used in the study namely a single nozzle and perforated nozzles with four and nine holes, which are accommodated in the same available jet area 4.6 mm × 4.6 mm. This arrangement is akin to introducing a wire mesh at the nozzle exit plane. The effects of dimensionless jet-to-plate distance (2–9) and the mass flow rate of the jet fluid on the heat transfer rate are studied. Jet centerline mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements are made with a hot-wire anemometer. The pressure drop across the orifice nozzle plate is measured and corresponding pumping power values are calculated. A comparison of the heat transfer performance and pumping power penalty of the three nozzle configurations is done.


Nusselt Number Mass Flow Rate Turbulence Intensity Heat Transfer Characteristic Average Nusselt Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


Calibration constants of the hot-wire anemometer


Width of the square hole on single orifice plate (mm)


Voltage across the hot wire probe (V)


Current (A)


Thermal conductivity of air (W/mK)


Width of the impingement plate (mm)


Mass flow rate (kg/s)


Average Nusselt number


Pumping power \((\dot{\text {Q}}\, \Delta p)\) (W)


Uniform heat flux supplied (W/\(\text {m}^{2}\))

\({\dot{\hbox {Q}}}\)

Volume flow rate (l/min)


Heat supplied (W)


Heat loss (W)


Net heat supplied (W)


Jet Reynolds number, \(\frac{m}{\phi B\mu }\)


Turbulence intensity, \(\frac{\sqrt{\overline{u'^2}}}{U_e}\times 100\)%


Average impingement surface temperature (K)


Jet temperature at the orifice exit (K)


Fluctuating component of the jet centerline velocity (m/s)


Jet centerline velocity (m/s)


Jet exit velocity (m/s)


Normalized jet centerline velocity


Voltage supplied to the heater (V)


Jet-to-plate distance (mm)

Z / B

Dimensionless jet-to-plate distance

Greek letters

\(\mu \)

Dynamic viscosity of air (kg/m s)

\(\rho \)

Density of air (kg/\(\text {m}^3\))

\(\phi \)

Flow area ratio

\(\Delta p\)

Pressure drop (Pa)



Authors acknowledge Dr. Arvind Pattamatta and Sangamesh C Godi, HTTP Laboratory, IIT Madras, for the help provided in hot-wire anemometer measurements. Also, the first author Pullarao Muvvala would like to thank Prof. K. Srinivasan, TDCE Laboratory, IIT Madras, for the lectures on course titled “Jet flow and Acoustics”, which gave foundation knowledge for the research problem.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pullarao Muvvala
    • 1
  • C. Balaji
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. P. Venkateshan
    • 1
  1. 1.Heat Transfer and Thermal Power Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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