Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 395–405 | Cite as

The experimental investigation and thermodynamic analysis of vortex tubes

  • Adem Celik
  • Mehmet Yilmaz
  • Mehmet KayaEmail author
  • Sendogan Karagoz
Original

Abstract

In the present study, it was aimed to produce a fundamental i nformation and to investigate the effects of various design parameters on tube performance characteristics by setting up vortex tube experimental system in order to study the parameters predetermined for the design of vortex tubes and by conducting thermodynamic analysis. According to the findings of experiments, as the mass flow rate of cold flow increases (yc) temperature of cold flow also increases, while the temperature of warm flow increases approximately to yc = 0.6 and then decreases. Increases in inlet pressure, inlet nozzle surface and diameter of the cold outlet orifice increased temperature differences between cold and warm flows. Tube with L/D = 10 showed better performance than with L/D = 20. The finding that irreversibility parameter is very close to critical threshold of irreversibility proved that process in vortex tube is considerably irreversible. Coefficient of performance (COP) values in vortex tube were much lower than other heating and cooling systems. This situation may show that vortex tubes are convenient in the processes where productivity is at the second rate compared to other factors.

Keywords

Inlet Pressure Vortex Tube Energy Separation Increase Temperature Difference Exergy Consumption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

A

Inlet nozzle area (m2)

CFD

Computational fluid dynamics

CNC

Computer numerical control

COP

Coefficient of performance

d

Diameter (mm)

D

Diameter (mm)

k

Specific heat ratio

L

Length (mm)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)

N

Number

P

Pressure (Pa)

R

Specific gas constant (kJ kg−1 K−1)

RHVT

Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube

S

Entropy (W K−1)

T

Temperature (K)

T*

Dimensionless temperature

X

Normalised pressure drop

yc

Cold mass ratio

Greek symbols

∆T

Temperature difference

∆T/Tin

Normalised temperature drop/rise

Γ

(k − 1)/k

Θ

Irreversibility parameter

Subscripts

a

Ambient

c

Cold

h

Hot

in

Inlet

ir

Irreversible

m

Mean

N

Nozzle

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge that this study was supported with a grant from The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, TUBITAK (Project No: 105M028, Project Title: Use of Vortex Tubes in Refrigeration Technique), and Atatürk University Scientific Research Foundation (Project No: BAP 2005/20, Project Title: Use of Vortex Tubes in Refrigeration Technique).

References

  1. 1.
    Hilsch R (1947) The use of the expansion of gases in a centrifugal field as cooling process. Rev Sci Inst 18(2):108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nabhani N (1989) Hot-wire anemometry study of confined turbulent swirling flow. PhD thesis, Bradford University, Bradford, UKGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cockerill TT (1998) Thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge. http://www.southstreet.freeserve.co.uk/rhvtmatl/
  4. 4.
    Özgür A E, Selbaş R, Üçgül İ (2001) Cooling applications with vortex tubes (in Turkish). 5th national HVAC and sanitary convention and exhibition, İzmir, Turkey, pp 387–397Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fulton CD (1950) Ranque’s tube. J ASRE Refrig Eng 58(5):473–479Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yılmaz M, Çomaklı Ö, Kaya M, Karslı S (2006) Vortex tubes:1 technological development (in Turkish). Eng Mach 47(553):46–54Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yilmaz M, Kaya M, Karagoz S, Erdogan S (2009) A revive on design criteria for vortex tubes. Heat Mass Transf 45:613–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fröhlingsdorf W, Unger H (1999) Numerical investigations of the compressible flow and the energy separation in the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Int J 42(3):415–422zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silverman MP (1982) The vortex tube: a violation of the second law. Eur J Phys 3:88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stephan K, Lin S, Durst M, Huang F, Seher D (1984) A similarity relation for energy separation in a vortex tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf 27(6):911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balmer RT (1988) Pressure-driven Ranque–Hilsch temperature separation in liquids. Trans ASME J Fluids Eng 110:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Riu KJ, Choi BC (1996) An experimental study for cold end orifice of vortex tube. Trans KSME B 20(3):1061–1073Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saidi MH, Yazdi RA (1999) Exergy model of a vortex tube system with experimental results. Energy 24:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guillaume DW, Jolly JL (2001) Demonstrating the achievement of lower temperatures with two-stage vortex tubes. Rev Sci Instr 72(8):3446–3448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saidi MH, Valipour MS (2003) Experimental modeling of vortex tube refrigerator. Appl Therm Eng 23:1971–1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Promvonge P, Eiamsa-ard S (2005) Investigation on the vortex thermal separation in a vortex tube refrigerator. ScienceAsia 31:215–223CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aljuwayhel NF, Nellis GF, Klein SA (2005) Parametric and internal study of the vortex tube using a CFD model. Int J Refrig 28(3):442–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dinçer K, Başkaya S, Üçgül İ, Uysal B Z (2003) Experimental investigation of the effect of flow rates on the performance of a vortex tube (in Turkish). In: Proceeding of the 14th national congress on thermal science and technology, Isparta, Turkey, pp 6–12Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dinçer K, Uysal B Z, Başkaya S, Sivrioğlu M, Üçgül İ (2005) An experimental investigation of the performance of four-nozzle vortex tube (in Turkish). In: Proceeding of the 15th national congress on thermal science and technology, Trabzon, Turkey, pp 596–601Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dinçer K, Başkaya S, Kırmacı V, Usta H (2006) Investigation of performance of a vortex tube with air, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen asworking fluids (in Turkish). Eng Mach 47(560):36–40Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yılmaz M, Kaya M, Karagöz Ş, Karslı S (2007) High-pressure vortex tubes and technoeconomical analysis (in Turkish). In: Proceeding of the 16th national congress on thermal science and technology, Kayseri, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dincer K, Baskaya S, Uysal BZ, Ucgul İ (2009) Experimental investigation of the performance of a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube with regard to a lpug located at the hot outlet. Int J Refrig 32:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Markal B, Aydın O, Avcı M (2010) An experimental study on the effect of the valve angle of counter-flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes on thermal energy separation. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 34:966–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shamsoddini R, Nezhad AH (2010) Numerical analysis of the effects of nozzles number on the flow and power of cooling of a vortex tube. Int J Refrig 33:774–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eiamsa-ard S, Wongcharee K, Promvonge P (2010) Experimental investigation on energy separation in a counter-flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube: effect of cooling a hot tube. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 37:156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dincer K, Yilmaz Y, Berber A, Baskaya S (2011) Experimental investigation of performance of hot cascade type Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube and energy analysis. Int J Refrig 1117–1124Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Westley R (1957) Vortex tube performance data sheets. Cranfield Notes 67. Cranfield College of AeronauticsGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martynovskii VS, Alekseev VP (1957) Investigation of the vortex thermal separation effect for gases and vapors. Sov Phys Tech Phys 26(2):2233–2243Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lay JE (1959) An experimental and analytical study of vortex-flow temperature separation by superposition of spiral and axial flows, part 1. Trans ASME J Heat Transf 81:202–212Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lay JE (1959) An experimental and analytical study of vortex-flow temperature separation by superposition of spiral and axial flows, part 2. Trans ASME J Heat Transf 81:213–222Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gulyaev AI (1965) Ranque effect at low temperatures. J Eng Phys Thermophys 9(3):242–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gulyaev AI (1966) Vortex tubes and the vortex effect. Sov Phys Tech Phys 10(10):1441–1449Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gulyaev AI (1966) Investigation of conical vortex tubes. J Eng Phys Thermophys 10(3):193–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Linderstrom-Lang C U (1966) Gas separation in the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Model calculations based on flow data. Riso Report-135, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lewellen WS (1971) A review of confined vortex flows. Space Propulsion Lab., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Contract Report NASA-CR-1772; N71-32276Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Soni Y, Thomson WJ (1975) Optimal design of the Ranque-Hisch vortex tube. J Heat Transfer 94(2):316–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raut SS, Gharge DN, Bhimate CD, Raut MA, Upalkar SA, Patunkar PP (2014) An experimental modeling and ınvestigation of change in working parameters on the performance of vortex tube. Int J Adv Mech Eng 4:343–348Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamdan MO, Alsayyed B, Elnajjar E (2013) Nozzle parameters affecting vortex tube energy separation performance. Heat Mass Transf 49:533–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Torrella E, Patino J, Sanchez D, Llopis R, Cabello R (2013) Experimental evaluation of the energy performance of an air vortex tube when the ınlet parameters are varied. Open Mech Eng J 10:98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bidwaik AS, Dhavale SM (2015) To study the effects of design parameters on vortex tube with CFD analysis. Int J Eng Res Technol 4:90–95Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gupta US, Joshi MK, Rai S (2013) Thermodynamic analysis of counter flow vortex tube. Int J Eng Res Technol 2:pp 1–10Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gadhave AS, Kore SS (2015) An experimental study on operating parameter on counter flow vortex tube. Int J Innov Sci Eng Technol 2:401–405Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ahmed MS, Mohamed HA, Attalla M, Ahmed SA (2014) Experimental study of the energy separation in counter flow vortex tube. Int J Sci Eng Res 5:676–682Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kshirsagar OM, Ankolekar VV, Kapatkar VN (2014) Effect of geometric modifications on the performance of vortex tube—a review. Int J Eng Res Appl 40:92–98Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shannak BA (2004) Temperature separation and friction losses in vortex tube. Heat Mass Transf 40:779–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ahlborn B, Keller JU, Staudt R, Treitz G, Rebhan E (1994) Limits of temperature separation in a vortex tube. J Phys D Appl Phys 27:480–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Behera U, Paul PJ, Kasthurirengan S, Karunanithi R, Ram SN, Dinesh K, Jacob S (2005) CFD analysis and experimental investigations towards optimizing the parameters of Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf 48:1961–1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ji Y, Wu Y, Ding Y, He S, Jiang S, Ma C (2006) Study of the influence of structural parameters on the vortex tube performance. J Aerosp Power 01:88–93Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sherfy RB (1971) Vortex Tube Cooling. U. S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Report Number Z018137Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fischer S (2000) Not-in-kind technologies for residential and commercial unitary equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC05- 96OR22464Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gao C (2005) Experimental study on the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit EindhovenGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adem Celik
    • 2
  • Mehmet Yilmaz
    • 3
  • Mehmet Kaya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sendogan Karagoz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringErzincan UniversityErzincanTurkey
  2. 2.VIIIth Regional Directorate of State Hydraulic WorksErzurumTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAtattürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

Personalised recommendations