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Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 291–304 | Cite as

Experimental investigation on thermo-physical properties and overall performance of MWCNT–water nanofluid flow inside horizontal coiled wire inserted tubes

  • M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi
  • Mohamad Shahidi
  • M. R. Aligoodarz
  • Mohammad Ghazvini
Original

Abstract

The present study is aimed to measure and analyze the thermo-physical properties and overall performance of MWCNT–water nanofluid in turbulent flow regimes under constant heat flux conditions inside horizontal coiled wire inserted tubes. For this purpose, stable MWCNT–water nanofluids with different particle weight fractions of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 % as well as deionized water were utilized as the working fluids. It was found that the existing theoretical models could not predict the thermo-physical property values accurately, especially in case of specific heat capacity. Therefore, new empirical correlations are presented based on the obtained experimental results to predict such properties for the nanofluids. In addition, the overall performance of heat transfer techniques considered in this paper was evaluated based on thermal performance factor. The results revealed that thermal performance factor for all cases are greater than unity which indicate that simultaneous usage of nanofluids and wire coil inserts enhances the heat transfer without huge penalty in pumping power. Hence, using nanofluids as the working fluid in combination with coiled wire inserted tubes can be considered for some practical applications.

Keywords

Test Section Friction Factor Specific Heat Capacity Base Fluid Heat Transfer Enhancement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

Cp

Specific heat of fluid (J/kg K)

d

Tube inside diameter (m)

dh

Hydraulic diameter, d h  = 4 * (free volume/wetted surface) (m)

dc

Wire coil diameter (m)

e

Wire diameter (m)

f

Friction factor

h

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

k

Fluid thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L

Tube length (m)

\(\dot{m}\)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

Nu

Nusselt number, Nu = hd/k, (−)

P

Perimeter of tube (m)

q″

Heat flux (W/m2)

Q

Heating rate by electric heater (W)

Re

Reynolds number, \(Re = \, \rho Vd/\mu\), (−)

T

Temperature (°C)

V

Velocity (m/s)

U

Uncertainty

wt

Weight fraction

Greek symbols

μ

Fluid dynamic viscosity (kg/m s)

ν

Fluid kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

ρ

Fluid density (kg/m3)

τ

Shear stress (Pa)

γ

Shear rate (1/s)

η

Volumetric concentration of nanoparticles (%)

Φ

Thermal performance factor

ΔP

Pressure drop across the tube (Pa)

Subscripts

B

Bulk

Exp

Experimental

F

Fluid

In

Inlet

out

Outlet

W

Wall

Abbreviations

BF

Base fluid

CNT

Carbon nanotubes

ET

Enhanced tube

MWCNT

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes

NF

Nanofluid

NP

Nanoparticle

PT

Plain tube

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their thanks to the Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, College of Engineering, University of Tehran for the financial supports through the set-up construction and research implementation and also the center of excellence in design and optimization of energy systems.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi
    • 1
  • Mohamad Shahidi
    • 2
  • M. R. Aligoodarz
    • 2
  • Mohammad Ghazvini
    • 3
  1. 1.Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentShahid Rajaee Teacher Training UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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