Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 45, Issue 5, pp 613–632 | Cite as

A review on design criteria for vortex tubes

  • M. YilmazEmail author
  • M. Kaya
  • S. Karagoz
  • S. Erdogan


In this study, the past investigations of the design criteria of vortex tubes were overviewed and the detailed information was presented on the design of them. Vortex tubes were classified and the type of them was described. All criteria on the design of vortex tubes were given in detail using experimental and theoretical results from the past until now. Finally, the criteria on the design of them are summarized.


Inlet Pressure Vortex Tube Vortex Chamber Exergy Destruction Inlet Nozzle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


cross section (m2)


computational fluid dynamics


coefficient of performance


specific heat at constant pressure (kJ kg−1 K−1)


specific heat at constant volume (kJ kg−1 K−1)


diameter (m)


diameter (m)


enthalpy (kJ kg−1)


specific heat ratio


Boltzmann constant (J K−1)


length (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

mass flow rate (kg s−1)




pressure (Pa)

\( \dot{Q} \)

heat transfer rate (W)


specific gas constant (kJ kg−1 K−1)


Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube


entropy (W K−1)


temperature (K)

\( T_{\text{sm}}^{*} \)

temperature assumed to be \( T_{h}^{1 - \varepsilon } T_{c}^{\varepsilon } \)

\( \dot{W} \)

power (W)


normalised pressure drop \( \left( {X = {{\left( {p_{{\text{in}}} - p_{c} } \right)} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\left( {p_{{\text{in}}} - p_{c} } \right)} {p_{{\text{in}}} }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {p_{{\text{in}}} }}} \right) \)

Greek symbols


angle of cone-shaped control valve


ratio of hot end area to tube area


cold orifice diameter ratio \( \left( {\beta = {{d_{\text{c}} } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{d_{\text{c}} } D}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} D}} \right) \)


cold fraction


Lennard–Jones potential




temperature difference

\( {{\Updelta T} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\Updelta T} {T_{\text{in}} }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {T_{\text{in}} }} \)

normalised temperature drop/rise


\( {{\left( {k - 1} \right)} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\left( {k - 1} \right)} k}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} k} \)


irreversibility parameter

\( \tau_{\text{p}} \)

pressure ratio \( \left( { = {{p_{\text{in}} } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{p_{\text{in}} } {p_{\text{c}} }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {p_{\text{c}} }}} \right) \)













heat pump











The authors would like to acknowledge that this study was supported with a grant from The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, TÜBİTAK (Project No: 105M028, Project Title: Use of Vortex Tubes in Refrigeration Technique), and Atatürk University Scientific Research Foundation (Project No: BAP 2005/20, Project Title: Use of Vortex Tubes in Refrigeration Technique).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering FacultyAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Türk Hava Yolları Teknik A. Ş. HavaalanıErzurumTurkey
  3. 3.Erzurum Vocational School of Higher EducationAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

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