Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 43, Issue 10, pp 985–995 | Cite as

Evaluating thermal performance of a single slope solar still

  • Omar O. Badran
  • Mazen M. Abu-Khader
Original

Abstract

The distillation is one of the important methods of getting clean water from brackish and sea water using the free energy supply from the sun. An experimental work is conducted on a single slope solar still. The thermal performance of the single slope solar still is examined and evaluated through implementing the following effective parameters: (a) different insulation thicknesses of 1, 2.5 and 5 cm; (b) water depth of 2 and 3.5 cm; (c) solar intensity; (d) Overall heat loss coefficient (e) effective absorbtivity and transmissivity; and (f) ambient, water and vapor temperatures. Different effective parameters should be taken into account to increase the still productivity. A mathematical model is presented and compared with experimental results. The model gives a good match with experimental values.

Keywords

Heat Transfer Coefficient Glass Cover Loss Coefficient Standard Local Time Incident Solar Radiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

As

basin liner still area, (m2)

Ass

side still area (m2)

a

equation constant, Eqs. 27, 30

hcb

basin liner convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

hb

basin liner overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

hcg

glass cover convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

hcw

heat loss coefficient by convection from water surface (W/m2 K)

hew

heat loss coefficient by evaporation from water surface (W/m2 K)

hrb

basin liner radiative heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

hrg

glass cover radiative heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

hrw

basin water radiative heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

htg

total glass heat transfer loss coefficient (W/m2 K)

hw

convective heat transfer coefficient from basin to water (W/m2 K)

htw

total water surface heat transfer loss coefficient (W/m2 K)

I

solar intensity (W/m2)

kins

insulation thermal conductivity (W/m K)

Lins

insulation thickness (m)

M

total mass productivity/day (kg/day)

(MC)w

water heat capacity rate of water per unit area (J/m2K)

Pg

glass saturated partial pressure (N/m2)

Pw

water saturated partial pressure (N/m2)

qg

rate of total energy from the glass cover (W/m2)

qb

rate of total energy from basin liner (W/m2)

qbg

rate of energy lost from basin liner to the ground (W/m2)

qcg

rate of energy lost from the glass cover by convective (W/m2)

qew

rate of energy lost from water surface by evaporation (W/m2)

qcw

rate of energy lost from water surface by convection (W/m2)

qrg

rate of energy lost from the glass cover by radiation (W/m2)

qrw

rate of energy lost from water surface by radiation (W/m2)

qs

rate of energy lost from the basin liner through the side of the still (W/m2)

Tw0

temperature of basin water (K)

Tgin

temperature of inside glass (K)

Tgout

temperature of outside glass (K)

Ta

ambient temperature (K)

Tb

basin liner temperature (K)

Tg

still glass cover (K)

Tsky

sky temperature (K)

Tv

still vapor temperature (K)

Tw

still water temperature (K)

t

time (s)

Ub

overall bottom heat lost coefficient (W/m2 K)

Ut

overall top heat loss coefficient (W/m2 K)

Ue

overall side heat loss coefficient (W/m2 K)

Ul

overall heat loss coefficient (W/m2 K)

Rt

thermal resistance (m2 K/W)

V

wind speed (m/s)

hfg

latent heat of vaporization (kJ/kg K)

Greek symbols

αb

absorbtivity fraction of energy absorbed by the basin liner

αg

absorbtivity fraction of energy absorbed by the glass cover

αw

absorbtivity fraction of energy absorbed by the water surface

τ

transmissivity

ɛg

glass emissivity

ɛw

water emissivity

ɛeff

effective emissivity

ηi

instantaneous efficiency

ηvol

volumetric effeciency

β

collector tilt angle (deg)

σ

Stephan–Boltzman coefficient (W/m2k4)

Δ

difference

Subscript

0

initial value

out

outlet

in

inlet

References

  1. 1.
    Aboul-Enein S, El-Sebaii AA, El-Bialy E (1998) Investigation of a single-basin solar still with deep basins. Renew Energy 14(1–4):299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akash BA, Mohsen MS, Osta O, Elayan Y (1998) Experimental evaluation of a single-basin solar still using different absorbing materials. Renew Energy 14(1–4):307–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akash BA, Mohsen MS, Nayfeh W (2000) Experimental study of the basin type solar still under local climate conditions. Energy Convers Manage 41(9):883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Hayek I, Badran O (2004) The effect of using different designs of solar stills on water distillation. Desalination 169(2):121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Hinai H, Al-Nassri MS, Jubran BA (2002a) Effect of climatic, design and operational parameters on the yield of a simple solar still. Energy Convers Manage 43(13):1639–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Hinai H, Al-Nassri MS, Jubran BA (2002b) Parametric investigation of a double-effect solar still in comparison with a single-effect solar still. Desalination 150(1):75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Karaghouli AA, Alnaser WE (2004a) Experimental comparative study of the performances of single and double basin solar-stills. Appl Energy 77(3):317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Karaghouli AA, Alnaser WE (2004b) Performances of single and double basin solar-stills. Appl Energy 78(3):347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boukar M, Harmim A (2001) Effect Of Climate Conditions On The Performance of a Simple Basin Solar Still: A Comparative Study. Desalination 137(1-3):15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boukar M, Harmim A (2004) Parametric study of a vertical solar still under desert climatic conditions. Desalination 168:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duffie JA, Beckman WA (1991) Solar Engineering of thermal processes. Madison, Wisconsin, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    El-Sebaii AA (1998) Parametric study of a vertical solar still. Energy Convers Manage 39(13):1303–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    El-Sebaii AA (2000) Effect of wind speed on some designs of solar stills. Energy Convers Manage 41(6):523–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    El-Sebaii AA (2004) Effect of wind speed on active and passive solar stills. Energy Convers Manage 45(7–8):1187–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    El-Sebaii AA (2005) Thermal performance of a triple-basin solar still. Desalination 174(1):23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fath HES., El-Samanoudy M, Fahmy K, Hassabou A (2003) A Thermal-Economic Analysis And Comparison Between Pyramid Shaped And Single-Slope Solar Still Configurations. Desalination 159:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fernandez JL, Chargoy N (1990) Multi-stage indirect heated solar still. Solar Energy (44):215–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goosen M, Sabalani S, Shyya W, Paton C, Al-Hinai H (2000) Thermodynamic and Economic Considerations In Solar Desalination. Desalination 129:63–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamdan MA, Musa AM, Jubran BA (1999) Performance of solar still under Jordanian climate. Energy Convers Manage 40(5):495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jubran BA, Ahmed MI, Ismail AF, Abakar YA (2000) Numerical modelling of a multi-stage solar still. Energy Convers Manage 41(11):1107–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kalogirou SA (2004) Solar thermal collectors and application. Prog Energy Combust Sci 30(3):231–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalogirou SA (2005) Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources. Prog Energy Combust Sci 31(3):242–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Khalifa AJ, Al-Jubouri AS, Abed MK (1999) An experimental study on modified simple solar stills. Energy Convers Manage 40(17):1835–1847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malik MAS, Tiwari GN, Kumar A, Sodha MS (1982) Solar distillation. Pergamon press Ltd, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mathioulakis E, Voropoulos K, Belessiotis V (1999) Modeling and prediction of long-term performance of solar stills. Desalination 122(1):85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mills AF (1995) Basic heat and mass transfer. Richard D. Irwin series in Heat Transfer, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nafey AS, Abdelkader M, Abdelmotalip A, Mabrouk AA (2000) Parameters affecting solar still productivity. Energy Convers Manage 41(16):1797–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nafey AS, Abdelkader M, Abdelmotalip A, Mabrouk A (2001) ”Solar still Productivity enhancement. Energy Convers Manage 42(11):1401–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nijmeh S, Odeh S, Akash B (2005) Experimental and theoretical study of a single-basin solar still in Jordan. Int comm In Heat Mass Transfer 32:565–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sawhney RL, Kamal R (1992) Solar energy and conservation. Wiley Eastern Limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Srivastava NSL, Din GN, Tiwari GN (2000) Performance Evaluation Of Distillation-Cum-Greenhouse For a Warm and Humid Climate. Desalination 128:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suneja S, Tiwari GN (1999) Effect of water depth on the performance of an inverted absorber double basin solar still. Energy Convers Manage 40(17):1885–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tiwari GN (1992) Contemporary physics–solar energy and energy conservation. In: Recent Advances in Solar Distillation. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. Chapter IIGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tiwari GN (2002) Solar Energy. Narosa Publishing House. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tiwari GN, Noor MA (1996) Characterization of solar still. Int J Solar Energy 18:147Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tiwari GN, Prasad B (1996) Thermal modeling of concentrator assisted solar distillation with water flow over the glass cover. Int J Solar Energy 18(3):173Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tiwari GN, Kupfermann A, Agrawal S (1997) A new design of double condensing chamber solar still. Desalination 114:153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tiwari GN, Singh HN, Tripathi R (2003a) Present Status of Solar Distillation. Solar Energy 75:367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tiwari GN, Shukla SK, Singh IP (2003b) Computer modeling of Passive/active solar still by using inner glass temperature. Desalination 154(2):171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tripathi R, Tiwari GN (2004) Performance evaluation of a solar still by using the concept of solar fractionation. Desalination 169(1):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Voropoulos K, Mathioulakis E, Belessiotis V (2003) Analytical simulation of energy behavior of solar stills and experimental validation. Desalination 153(1–3):87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFET, AL-Balqa Applied UniversityAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringFET, AL-Balqa Applied UniversityAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations