Impact of age and CYP2D6 genetics on exposure of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole in patients using long-acting injectable versus oral formulation: relevance of poor and intermediate metabolizer status
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Tailoring medication dosing for the individual patient is complex, and many factors can influence drug exposure. We investigated the effect of age and CYP2D6 genotype on aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole exposure in patients using long-acting injectable (LAI) or oral aripiprazole.
Matched data on serum concentration of aripiprazole and CYP2D6 genotype of patients using oral or LAI aripiprazole were included retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring service. The patients were divided into the following CYP2D6 genotype-defined categories: poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), normal metabolizers (NMs), and ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). Linear mixed model analyses were used to evaluate the impact of CYP2D6 genotype on dose-adjusted serum concentrations of the active moiety of aripiprazole+dehydroaripiprazole in relation to age and formulation.
We identified 635 patients (mean age = 40.1 years, 9.4% ≥ 65 years, 53.7% females) using LAI (n = 166) or oral formulation (n = 469). The genotype-predicted CYP2D6 phenotype subgroups were 2.4% UMs, 82.0% NMs, 8.0% IMs, and 7.2% PMs. Age did not significantly affect exposure of the active moiety of aripiprazole+dehydroaripiprazole in the LAI (p = 0.071) or oral (p = 0.14) subgroups. Compared with CYP2D6 NMs, PMs and IMs had significantly increased exposure of the active moiety of aripiprazole+dehydroaripiprazole in the LAI (1.7-fold higher, p < 0.001, and 1.5-fold higher, p < 0.001) and oral (1.7-fold higher, p < 0.001, and 1.6-fold higher, p < 0.001) subgroups.
In conclusion, doses should be adjusted according to CYP2D6 genotype when initiating treatment with aripiprazole LAI or tablets, while advanced age do not affect the exposure of the active moiety of aripiprazole treatment regardless of formulation.
KeywordsAripiprazole Genotype CYP2D6 Age Therapeutic drug monitoring Long-acting injection
Marit Tveito designed the research, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript.
Espen Molden designed the research and wrote the manuscript.
Gudrun Høiseth designed the research and wrote the manuscript.
Cristoph U. Correll wrote the manuscript.
Robert L. Smith analyzed data and wrote the manuscript.
This work was funded by the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority (grant numbers 2017085 and 2016097).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Dr. Correll has been a consultant and/or advisor to or has received honoraria from Alkermes, Allergan, Angelini, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Gerson Lehrman Group, Indivior, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Janssen/J&J, LB Pharma, Lundbeck, MedAvante-ProPhase, Medscape, Merck, Neurocrine, Noven, Otsuka, Pfizer, Rovi, Servier, Sumitomo Dainippon, Sunovion, Supernus, Takeda, and Teva. He has provided expert testimony for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, and Otsuka. He served on a Data Safety Monitoring Board for Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Rovi, Supernus, and Teva. He received royalties from UpToDate and grant support from Janssen and Takeda. He is also a shareholder of LB Pharma. Prof. Molden has received speaker´s honoraria from Lundbeck and Lilly. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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