Correlation between proton pump inhibitors and risk of pyogenic liver abscess
Little is known about the relationship between proton pump inhibitors use and pyogenic liver abscess. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between proton pump inhibitors use and pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan.
This was a population-based case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program since 2000 to 2011. Subjects aged 20 to 84 who experienced their first episode of pyogenic liver abscess were enrolled as the case group (n = 1372). Randomly selected subjects aged 20 to 84 without pyogenic liver abscess were enrolled as the control group (n = 1372). Current use, early use, and late use of proton pump inhibitors was defined as subjects whose last one tablet for proton pump inhibitors was noted ≤30 days, between 31 to 90 days and ≥91 days before the date of admission for pyogenic liver abscess. Subjects who never received a prescription for proton pump inhibitors were defined as nonusers of proton pump inhibitors. A multivariable unconditional logistic regression model was used to measure the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to evaluate the correlation between proton pump inhibitors use and pyogenic liver abscess.
After adjusting for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio of pyogenic liver abscess was 7.59 for subjects with current use of proton pump inhibitors (95% confidence interval 5.05, 11.4), when compared with nonusers.
Current use of proton pump inhibitors is associated with a greater risk of pyogenic liver abscess.
KeywordsProton pump inhibitors Pyogenic liver abscess Case-control study Taiwan
This study is supported in part by Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare Clinical Trial Center (MOHW106-TDU-B-212-113004). This funding agency did not influence the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Hsien-Feng Lin initiated the draft of the article and revised the article.
Kuan-Fu Liao, Ching-Mei Chang, and Cheng-Li Lin conducted the data analysis and revised the article.
Shih-Wei Lai planned and conducted this study. He contributed to the conception of the article, initiated the draft of the article, and revised the article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 6.Jena AB, Sun E, Goldman DP (2012) Confounding in the association of proton pump inhibitor use with risk of community-acquired pneumonia. J Gen Med 28(2):223–230Google Scholar
- 8.Johnstone J, Nerenberg K, Loeb M (2010) Meta-analysis: proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia. 31:1165–77Google Scholar
- 11.Lai SW, Liao KF, Lai HC, Lin CL, Sung FC (2013 Jun) Use of proton pump inhibitors correlates with increased risk of colorectal cancer in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 9(2):192–193. doi: 10.1111/ajco.12054
- 12.Lai S-W, Sung F-C, Lin C-L, Liao K-F (2014) Use of proton pump inhibitors correlates with increased risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study in Taiwan. Kuwait Med J 46:44–48Google Scholar
- 15.Kendal G, Marcon NE (1984) Pyogenic liver abscess: new concepts of an old disease. Am J Gastroenterol 79:65–71Google Scholar
- 18.Chang FY, Chou MY, Fan RL, Shaio MF (1988) A clinical study of Klebsiella liver abscesses. J Formos Med Assoc 87:282–287Google Scholar
- 21.National Health Insurance Research Database. Taiwan. http://nhird.nhri.org.tw/en/index.html [cited in March 1, 2017, English version]
- 43.Lai SW, Liu JC, Tseng CH, Muo CH, Liao KF (2013) Chronic osteomyelitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: an observation in Taiwan. Kuwait Med J 45:159–160Google Scholar
- 44.Liao K-F, Lin C-L, Lai S-W (2015) Schizophrenia correlates with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in men: a cohort study in Taiwan. Int Med J 22Google Scholar
- 45.Lai S-W, Lin C-L, Liao K-F, Lin C-M (2015) Parkinson’s disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in older people: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan. Int Med J 22Google Scholar
- 49.Liao KF, Cheng KC, Lin CL, Lai SW (2017) Etodolac and the risk of acute pancreatitis. BioMedicine-Taiwan 7:25–29Google Scholar
- 50.Shen ML, Liao KF, Tsai SM, Lin CL, Lai SW (2016) Herpes zoster correlates with pyogenic liver abscesses in Taiwan. BioMedicine-Taiwan 6:24–29Google Scholar
- 51.Lai SW (2016) Risks and benefits of zolpidem use in Taiwan: a narrative review. BioMedicine-Taiwan 6:9–11Google Scholar
- 52.Lin HF, Lai SW, Lin WY, Liu CS, Lin CC, Chang CM (2016) Prevalence and factors of elevated alanine aminotransferase in central Taiwan—a retrospective study. BioMedicine-Taiwan 6:25–30Google Scholar