European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 71, Issue 12, pp 1415–1427

Potentially inappropriate prescribing in community-dwelling older people across Europe: a systematic literature review

  • Eline Tommelein
  • Els Mehuys
  • Mirko Petrovic
  • Annemie Somers
  • Pieter Colin
  • Koen Boussery
Review

Abstract

Background

Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is one of the main risk factors for adverse drug events (ADEs) in older people.

Purpose

This systematic literature review aims to determine prevalence and type of PIP in community-dwelling older people across Europe, as well as identifying risk factors for PIP.

Methods

The PubMed and Web of Science database were searched systematically for relevant manuscripts (January 1, 2000–December 31, 2014). Manuscripts were included if the study design was observational, the study participants were community-dwelling older patients in Europe, and if a published screening method for PIP was used. Studies that focused on specific pathologies or that focused on merely one inappropriate prescribing issue were excluded. Data analysis was performed using R statistics.

Results

Fifty-two manuscripts were included, describing 82 different sample screenings with an estimated overall PIP prevalence of 22.6 % (CI 19.2–26.7 %; range 0.0–98.0 %). Ten of the sample screenings were based on the Beers 1997 criteria, 19 on the Beers 2003 criteria, 14 on STOPP criteria (2008 version), 8 on START-criteria (2008 version), and 7 on the PRISCUS list. The 24 remaining sample screenings were carried out using compilations of screening methods or used country-specific lists such as the Laroche criteria. It appears that only PIP prevalence calculated from insurance data significantly differs from the other data collection method categories. Furthermore, risk factors most often positively associated with PIP prevalence were polypharmacy, poor functional status, and depression. Drug groups most often involved in PIP were anxiolytics (ATC-code: N05B), antidepressants (N06A), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products (M01A).

Conclusion

PIP prevalence in European community-dwelling older adults is high and depends partially on the data collection method used. Polypharmacy, poor functional status, and depression were identified as the most common risk factors for PIP.

Keywords

Community-dwelling Primary care Aged Inappropriate prescribing 

Supplementary material

228_2015_1954_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 19 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Statistical Office of the European Communities. EUROSTAT: population data—proportion of population aged 65 and over. Secondary EUROSTAT: population data—proportion of population aged 65 and over. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tps00028&plugin=1
  2. 2.
    Al Hamid A, Ghaleb M, Aljadhey H et al (2014) A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 78(2):202–17PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tache SV, Soennichsen A, Ashcroft DM (2011) Prevalence of adverse drug events in ambulatory care: a systematic review. Ann Pharmacother 45(7-8):977–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thomsen LA, Winterstein AG, Sondergaard B et al (2007) Systematic review of the incidence and characteristics of preventable adverse drug events in ambulatory care. Ann Pharmacother 41(9):1411–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lund BC, Carnahan RM, Egge JA et al (2010) Inappropriate prescribing predicts adverse drug events in older adults. Ann Pharmacother 44(6):957–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamilton H, Gallagher P, Ryan C et al (2011) Potentially inappropriate medications defined by STOPP criteria and the risk of adverse drug events in older hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med 171(11):1013–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Price SD, Holman CD, Sanfilippo FM et al (2014) Association between potentially inappropriate medications from the Beers criteria and the risk of unplanned hospitalization in elderly patients. Ann Pharmacother 48(1):6–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pasina L, Djade CD, Tettamanti M et al (2014) Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications and risk of adverse clinical outcome in a cohort of hospitalized elderly patients: results from the REPOSI Study. J Clin Pharm Ther 39(5):511–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Laroche ML, Charmes JP, Nouaille Y et al (2007) Is inappropriate medication use a major cause of adverse drug reactions in the elderly? Br J Clin Pharmacol 63(2):177–86PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Opondo D, Eslami S, Visscher S, et al. (2012) Inappropriateness of medication prescriptions to elderly patients in the primary care setting: a systematic review. PloS one 7(8)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE et al (2003) Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults—results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med 163(22):2716–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spinewine A, Schmader KE, Barber N et al (2007) Appropriate prescribing in elderly people: how well can it be measured and optimised? Lancet 370(9582):173–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanlon JT, Schmader KE (2013) The medication appropriateness index at 20: where it started, where it has been, and where it may be going. Drugs Aging 30(11):893–900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    (2012) American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 60(4):616-3.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    O'Mahony D, O'Sullivan D, Byrne S, et al. (2014) STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age and ageingGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holt S, Schmiedl S, Thurmann PA (2010) Potentially inappropriate medications in the elderly: the PRISCUS list. DtschArztebl Int 107(31-32):543–51Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hill-Taylor B, Sketris I, Hayden J et al (2013) Application of the STOPP/START criteria: a systematic review of the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults, and evidence of clinical, humanistic and economic impact. J Clin Pharm Ther 38(5):360–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shade MY, Berger AM, Chaperon C (2014) Potentially inappropriate medications in community-dwelling older adults. Res Gerontol Nurs 7(4):178–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gallagher PF, O'Connor MN, O'Mahony D (2011) Prevention of potentially inappropriate prescribing for elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial using STOPP/START criteria. Clin Pharmacol Ther 89(6):845–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Rollingher I et al (1991) Explicit criteria for determining inappropriate medication use in nursing home residents. UCLA Division of Geriatric Medicine. Arch Intern Med 151(9):1825–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aparasu RR, Mort JR (2000) Inappropriate prescribing for the elderly: Beers criteria-based review. Ann Pharmacother 34(3):338–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gallagher P, Barry P, O'Mahony D (2007) Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly. J Clin Pharm Ther 32(2):113–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Galvin R, Moriarty F, Cousins G et al (2014) Prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing and prescribing omissions in older Irish adults: findings from The Irish LongituDinal Study on Ageing study (TILDA). Eur J Clin Pharmacol 70(5):599–606PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kovacevic SV, Simisic M, Rudinski SS, et al. (2014) Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older primary care patients. PloS one 9(4)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Primejdie D, Bojita M, Popa A (2012) Potential inappropriate medication use in community-dwelling elderly patients. A qualitative study. Farmacia 60(3):366–78Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blanco-Reina E, Ariza-Zafra G, Ocana-Riola R et al (2014) 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria: enhanced applicability for detecting potentially inappropriate medications in European older adults? A comparison with the screening tool of older person’s potentially inappropriate prescriptions. J Am Geriatr Soc 62(7):1217–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M et al (2015) Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 349:g7647Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHO collaborating centre for drug statistics methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2015Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Koper D, Kamenski G, Flamm M et al (2013) Frequency of medication errors in primary care patients with polypharmacy. Fam Pract 30(3):313–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vlahovic-Palcevski V, Bergman U (2004) Quality of prescribing for the elderly in Croatia-computerized pharmacy data can be used to screen for potentially inappropriate prescribing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 60(3):217–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beers MH (1997) Explicit criteria for determining potentially inappropriate medication use by the elderly. An update. Arch Intern Med 157(14):1531–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Popovic B, Quadranti NR, Matanovic SM et al (2014) Potentially inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients in Croatia. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 70(6):737–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mimica Matanovic S, Vlahovic-Palcevski V (2012) Potentially inappropriate medications in the elderly: a comprehensive protocol. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 68(8):1123–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bregnhoj L, Thirstrup S, Kristensen MB et al (2007) Prevalence of inappropriate prescribing in primary care. Pharm World Sci 29(3):109–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Samsa GP et al (1992) A method for assessing drug therapy appropriateness. J Clin Epidemiol 45(10):1045–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pitkala KH, Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS (2002) Inappropriate drug prescribing in home-dwelling, elderly patients: a population-based survey. Arch Intern Med 162(15):1707–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leikola S, Dimitrow M, Lyles A et al (2011) Potentially inappropriate medication use among Finnish non-institutionalized people aged ≥65 years. A register-based, cross-sectional, national study. Drugs Aging 28(3):227–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bell JS, Ahonen J, Lavikainen P et al (2013) Potentially inappropriate drug use among older persons in Finland: application of a new national categorization. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 69(3):657–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finnish Medicines Agency. Database of medication for the elderly. Secondary database of medication for the elderly 2010. http://www.fimea.fi/development/medicines_information/database_of_medication_for_the_elderly
  40. 40.
    Lechevallier-Michel N, Gautier-Bertrand M, Alperovitch A et al (2005) Frequency and risk factors of potentially inappropriate medication use in a community-dwelling elderly population: results from the 3C Study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 60(11):813–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Berdot S, Bertrand M, Dartigues JF et al (2009) Inappropriate medication use and risk of falls—a prospective study in a large community-dwelling elderly cohort. BMC Geriatr 9:30PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Laroche ML, Charmes JP, Merle L (2007) Potentially inappropriate medications in the elderly: a French consensus panel list. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63(8):725–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bongue B, Naudin F, Laroche ML et al (2009) Trends of the potentially inappropriate medication consumption over 10 years in older adults in the East of France. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18(12):1125–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bongue B, Laroche ML, Gutton S et al (2011) Potentially inappropriate drug prescription in the elderly in France: a population-based study from the French National Insurance Healthcare system. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 67(12):1291–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jardin M, Bocquier A, Cortaredona S et al (2012) Potentially inappropriate prescriptions for the elderly: a study of health insurance reimbursements in Southeastern France. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 60(2):121–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fiss T, Dreier A, Meinke C et al (2011) Frequency of inappropriate drugs in primary care: analysis of a sample of immobile patients who received periodic home visits. Age Ageing 40(1):66–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Amann U, Schmedt N, Garbe E (2012) Prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications for the elderly: an analysis based on the PRISCUS list. Dtsch Arztebl Int 109(5):69–75PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goltz L, Kullak-Ublick GA, Kirch W (2012) Potentially inappropriate prescribing for elderly outpatients in Germany: a retrospective claims data analysis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 50(3):185–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schubert I, Kupper-Nybelen J, Ihle P et al (2013) Prescribing potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in Germany’s elderly as indicated by the PRISCUS list. An analysis based on regional claims data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 22(7):719–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zimmermann T, Kaduszkiewicz H, van den Bussche H et al (2013) Potentially inappropriate medication in elderly primary care patients. A retrospective, longitudinal analysis. Bundesgesundheitsbl-Gesundheitsforsch-Gesundheitsschutz 56(7):941–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Linder R, Schneider U, Kothemann M et al (2014) [Physicians’ prescription behavior of potentially inappropriate medications for elderly people: an analysis using the PRISCUS list based on TK routine data]. Wochenschr (1946) 139(19):983–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ryan C, O'Mahony D, Kennedy J et al (2009) Appropriate prescribing in the elderly: an investigation of two screening tools, Beers criteria considering diagnosis and independent of diagnosis and improved prescribing in the elderly tool to identify inappropriate use of medicines in the elderly in primary care in Ireland. J Clin Pharm Ther 34(4):369–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McLeod PJ, Huang AR, Tamblyn RM et al (1997) Defining inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people: a national consensus panel. CMAJ Can Med Assoc J J de l'Assoc Med Can 156(3):385–91Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ryan C, O'Mahony D, Kennedy J et al (2009) Potentially inappropriate prescribing in an Irish elderly population in primary care. Br J Clin Pharmacol 68(6):936–47PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ryan C, O'Mahony D, Kennedy J et al (2008) Screening tools for elderly patients in primary care: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right, i.e., appropriate, indicated Treatment). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17(7):746–47Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cahir C, Fahey T, Teeling M et al (2010) Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: a national population study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 69(5):543–52PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cahir C, Bennett K, Teljeur C et al (2014) Potentially inappropriate prescribing and adverse health outcomes in community dwelling older patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 77(1):201–10PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Maio V, Yuen EJ, Novielli K et al (2006) Potentially inappropriate medication prescribing for elderly outpatients in Emilia Romagna, Italy: a population-based cohort study. Drugs Aging 23(11):915–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Landi F, Russo A, Liperoti R et al (2007) Impact of inappropriate drug use on physical performance among a frail elderly population living in the community. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63(8):791–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lapi F, Pozzi C, Mazzaglia G et al (2009) Epidemiology of suboptimal prescribing in older, community dwellers: a two-wave, population-based survey in Dicomano, Italy. Drugs Aging 26(12):1029–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Maio V, Del Canale S, Abouzaid S (2010) Using explicit criteria to evaluate the quality of prescribing in elderly Italian outpatients: a cohort study. J Clin Pharm Ther 35(2):219–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bradley MC, Fahey T, Cahir C et al (2012) Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: a cross-sectional study using the Northern Ireland Enhanced Prescribing Database. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 68(10):1425–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nyborg G, Straand J, Brekke M (2012) Inappropriate prescribing for the elderly—a modern epidemic? Eur J Clin Pharmacol 68(7):1085–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rognstad S, Brekke M, Fetveit A et al (2009) The Norwegian General Practice (NORGEP) criteria for assessing potentially inappropriate prescriptions to elderly patients. Scand J Prim Health Care 27(3):153–59PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rajska-Neumann A, Wieczorowska-Tobis K (2007) Polypharmacy and potential inappropriateness of pharmaco-logical treatment among community-dwelling elderly patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 44(Suppl 1):303–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    de Oliveira MS, Soares MA, Foppe van Mil JW et al (2006) Inappropriate drug use by Portuguese elderly outpatients—effect of the Beers criteria update. Pharm World Sci PWS 28(5):296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Barnett K, McCowan C, Evans JMM et al (2011) Prevalence and outcomes of use of potentially inappropriate medicines in older people: cohort study stratified by residence in nursing home or in the community. BMJ Qual Saf 20(3):275–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gavilan Moral E, Morales Suarez-Varela MT, Hoyos Esteban JA et al (2006) Inappropriate multiple medication and prescribing of drugs immobile elderly patients living in the community. Aten Primaria / Soc Esp de Med de Familia Comunitaria 38(9):476–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Conejos Miguel MD, Sanchez Cuervo M, Delgado Silveira E et al (2010) Potentially inappropriate drug prescription in older subjects across health care settings. Eur Geriatr Med 1(1):9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mera F, Mestre D, Almeda J et al (2011) Inappropriate prescription in the community elderly, are we aware of? Revi Esp Geriatr Gerontol 46(3):125–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lesende IM, Crespo IM, Lopez GM et al (2013) Potentiality of STOPP/START criteria used in primary care to effectively change inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. Eur Geriatr Med 4(5):293–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Parodi Lopez N, Villan Villan YF, Granados Menendez MI et al (2014) Potentially inappropriate prescribing in patients over 65 years old in a primary care health centre. Aten Primaria 46(6):290–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Klarin I, Wimo A, Fastbom J (2005) The association of inappropriate drug use with hospitalisation and mortality: a population-based study of the very old. Drugs Aging 22(1):69–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robertson HA, MacKinnon NJ (2002) Development of a list of consensus-approved clinical indicators of preventable drug-related morbidity in older adults. Clin Ther 24(10):1595–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johnell K, Fastbom J, Rosen M et al (2007) Inappropriate drug use in the elderly: a nationwide register-based study. Ann Pharmacother 41(7):1243–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen). Indikatorer för god läkemedelsterapi hos äldre Secondary Indikatorer för god läkemedelsterapi hos äldre 2003. http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2010/2010-6-29
  77. 77.
    Blozik E, Rapold R, von Overbeck J et al (2013) Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication in the adult, community-dwelling population in Switzerland. Drugs Aging 30(7):561–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Reich O, Rosemann T, Rapold R et al (2014) Potentially inappropriate medication use in older patients in Swiss managed care plans: prevalence, determinants and association with hospitalization. PLoS One 9(8):e105425PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    van der Hooft CS, Jong GW t, Dieleman JP et al (2005) Inappropriate drug prescribing in older adults: the updated 2002 Beers criteria—a population-based cohort study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 60(2):137–44PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Denneboom W, Dautzenberg MGH, Grol R et al (2006) Analysis of polypharmacy in older patients in primary care using a multidisciplinary expert panel. Br J Gen Pract 56(528):504–10PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ay P, Akici A, Harmanc H (2005) Drug utilization and potentially inappropriate drug use in elderly residents of a community in Istanbul, Turkey. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 43(4):195–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yayla ME, Bilge U, Binen E, et al. (2013) The use of START/STOPP criteria for elderly patients in primary care. Scientific World JournalGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    De Wilde S, Carey IM, Harris T et al (2007) Trends in potentially inappropriate prescribing amongst older UK primary care patients. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16(6):658–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carey IM, De Wilde S, Harris T et al (2008) What factors predict potentially inappropriate primary care prescribing in older people? Analysis of UK primary care patient record database. Drugs Aging 25(8):693–706CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bradley MC, Motterlini N, Padmanabhan S, et al. (2014) Potentially inappropriate prescribing among older people in the United Kingdom. BMC geriatrics 14Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fialova D, Onder G (2009) Medication errors in elderly people: contributing factors and future perspectives. Br J Clin Pharmacol 67(6):641–45PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Guaraldo L, Cano FG, Damasceno GS et al (2011) Inappropriate medication use among the elderly: a systematic review of administrative databases. BMC Geriatr 11:79PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tommelein E, Petrovic M, Somers A, et al. (2015) Older patients’ prescriptions screening in the community pharmacy: development of the Ghent Older People’s Prescriptions community pharmacy screening (GheOP(3)S) tool. J Public Health (Oxf)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bulajeva A, Labberton L, Leikola S et al (2014) Medication review practices in European countries. Res Soc Adm Pharm RSAP 10(5):731–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Zhang Y, Baicker K, Newhouse JP (2010) Geographic variation in the quality of prescribing. N Engl J Med 363(21):1985–8PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    O'Mahony D, O'Sullivan D, Byrne S et al (2015) STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age Ageing 44(2):213–8PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lindblad CI, Hanlon JT, Gross CR et al (2006) Clinically important drug-disease interactions and their prevalence in older adults. Clin Ther 28(8):1133–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pugh MJV, Starner CI, Amuan ME et al (2011) Exposure to potentially harmful drug-disease interactions in older community-dwelling veterans based on the healthcare effectiveness data and information set quality measure: who is at risk? J Am Geriatr Soc 59(9):1673–78PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Aspinall SL, Zhao X, Semla TP et al (2015) Epidemiology of drug-disease interactions in older veteran nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 63(1):77–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Onder G, van der Cammen TJ, Petrovic M et al (2013) Strategies to reduce the risk of iatrogenic illness in complex older adults. Age Ageing 42(3):284–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kaur S, Mitchell G, Vitetta L et al (2009) Interventions that can reduce inappropriate prescribing in the elderly. A systematic review. Drugs Aging 26(12):1013–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Meid AD, Lampert A, Burnett A, et al. (2015) The impact of pharmaceutical care interventions for medication underuse in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of clinical pharmacologyGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cullinan S, Fleming A, O'Mahony D et al (2015) Doctors’ perspectives on the barriers to appropriate prescribing in older hospitalized patients: a qualitative study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 79(5):860–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eline Tommelein
    • 1
  • Els Mehuys
    • 1
  • Mirko Petrovic
    • 2
  • Annemie Somers
    • 1
    • 3
  • Pieter Colin
    • 4
    • 5
  • Koen Boussery
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Internal medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  5. 5.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations