Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population
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To determine the influence of genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and to explicate an algorithm using the pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to determine the maintenance and/or starting dose of warfarin in South Indian patients receiving warfarin therapy.
Patients receiving stabilized warfarin therapy (n = 257) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C9 (rs1799853 and rs1057910), VKORC1 (rs9923231, rs7196161, rs2884737, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs2359612 and rs7294), CYP4F2 (rs2108622) and GGCX (rs11676382) were genotyped by the quantitative real time-PCR method.
The mean daily maintenance dose of warfarin was found to be 4.7 ± 2.1 mg/day. Patients with the CYP2C9*1/*2, *1/*3 and *2/*3 variant genotypes required a 51.0 (2.8 mg), 60.9 (2.3 mg) and 62.2 % (2.2 mg) lower daily maintenance dose of warfarin, respectively, than those patients with the CYP2C9*1/*1 wild-type genotype (5.2 mg) (p < 0.0001). The genetic variants of CYP2C9, VKORC1 and GGCX were associated with decreased warfarin dose, except for rs7196161, rs7294 and rs2108622 which were associated with an increased warfarin dose. Genetic variations of CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), VKORC1 (rs9923231, rs7294, rs9934438 and rs2359612), CYP4F2, GGCX and non-genetic factors such as age, body weight, clinical status (post mechanical valve replacement) could explain up to 62.1 % of the overall variation (adjusted r 2 60.2 %, p < 0.0001) in warfarin maintenance dose.
Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX are important predictive factors of warfarin maintenance dose, and the developed algorithm will be useful to predict the required maintenance and/or starting warfarin dose in South Indian populations.
KeywordsWarfarin Genotype Polymorphisms Pharmacogenetic algorithm
This study was a collaborative project between Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) UMR775–Bases Moléculaires de la réponse aux xénobiotiques located in the Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France and the Indian council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India (grant 2011-2012). It was supported by a research grant (ICMR Ref. No. 50/6/2010/BMS, dated 03/11/2010) from the ICMR, New Delhi. The technical staffs of the departments of pharmacology, cardiology and CTVS departments are gratefully acknowledged.
Conflict of interest
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