Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population
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The antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel is variable among patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. Variation in the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) gene coding for the CYP2C19 enzyme is one of the major determinants of this variable response to clopidogrel. The activity of the CYP2C19 enzyme, which plays a role in the conversion of the prodrug clopidogrel to its active metabolite, is genetically influenced by polymorphisms in its gene. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in the South Indian Tamilian population.
Materials and methods
Genotyping and platelet aggregation results of 149 ischemic heart disease patients on clopidogrel maintenance therapy (75 mg daily dose) were analyzed in this study. CYP2C19 polymorphisms were genotyped by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We measured residual platelet activities in these patients on clopidogrel therapy in terms of impedance (expressed as ohms). The study subjects were divided into two metabolizer phenotype groups [group 1: poor/intermediate metabolizers (PM/IM); group 2: extensive/ultra-rapid metabolizers (EM/URM)] based on CYP2C19 genotype, and the residual platelet activities were compared. Higher values of impedance denote increased residual platelet activity.
Poor/intermediate metabolizers had significantly higher impedance values than EM/URM [(median; range) 4.0; 0–13 vs. 2.0; 0–11, respectively; p = 0.04]. These higher impedance values denote higher residual platelet activities among the carriers of loss-of-function alleles (CYP2C19*2,*3) than among non-carriers. However, residual platelet activities were lower among the carriers of the gain-of-function allele (CYP2C19*17) than among non-carriers, although this difference was not significant.
Patients with CYP2C19 (*2 or *3) genetic polymorphisms had higher residual platelet activities and were associated with a reduced antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. As the South Indian Tamilian population is characterized with higher frequencies of these genetic polymorphisms, our findings mandate further studies aimed at initiating genome-based personalized antiplatelet therapy.