European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 373–376 | Cite as

First European case of convulsions related to analytically confirmed use of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist AM-2201

  • David McQuade
  • Simon Hudson
  • Paul I. Dargan
  • David M. Wood



There is increasing reported use of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA) across Europe. To date, there is limited information on the acute toxicity (harm) related to the use of these products. We describe here a case in which an individual developed convulsions related to the use of the SCRA AM-2201.

Case report

A 20 year old male smoked a "Spice" (SCRA-containing) product called “Black Mamba,” and rapidly after smoking, he had a generalised self-terminating tonic-clonic convulsion. After a 2 h observation period in the Emergency Department (ED), he self-discharged against medical advice. Subsequent analysis of urine collected at the time of presentation to the ED detected metabolites of AM-2201; no other drugs were detected on extensive analytic screening.


This is the first case of convulsions related to the use of SCRA described in Europe, and the first case of convulsions related to the use the SCRA AM-2201 confirmed by analysis of biological samples. It is important for emergency physicians, clinical toxicologists and clinical pharmacologists managing those presenting with acute toxicity related to the use of SCRA to analytically confirm the exact compound(s) involved, to enable accurate description of the acute toxicity associated with individual SCRA.


Spice K2 Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist SCRA AM-2201 Recreational drugs Cannabis 


Conflicts of interest

D.M.W. and P.I.D. have acted as scientific advisors to the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Abuse (EMCDDA).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David McQuade
    • 1
  • Simon Hudson
    • 2
  • Paul I. Dargan
    • 3
    • 4
  • David M. Wood
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Emergency DepartmentGuy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.HFL Sport ScienceFordhamUK
  3. 3.Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s Health PartnersLondonUK
  4. 4.King’s College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Clinical Toxicology, St Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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