European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 68, Issue 5, pp 697–708 | Cite as

Intestinal OATP1A2 inhibition as a potential mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on aliskiren pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects

  • Sam RebelloEmail author
  • Sally Zhao
  • Sam Hariry
  • Marion Dahlke
  • Natalya Alexander
  • Arpine Vapurcuyan
  • Imad Hanna
  • Venkateswar Jarugula
Pharmacokinetics and Disposition



To conduct a mechanistic investigation of the interaction between aliskiren and grapefruit juice in healthy subjects.


Twenty-eight subjects received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg (highest recommended clinical dose) with 300 mL of either water or grapefruit juice in a two-way crossover design. Safety and pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. In vitro studies were performed in HEK293 cells to investigate the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporter-mediated uptake of aliskiren.


Co-administration of a single dose of aliskiren with grapefruit juice decreased the plasma concentration of aliskiren, with mean decreases in the AUCinf, AUClast, and Cmax of 38, 37, and 61%, respectively. The uptake of [14C]aliskiren into OATP2B1-expressing cells was essentially the same as that into control cells, and the inhibitor combination atorvastatin and rifamycin had no effect on [14C]aliskiren accumulation in either cell type. The uptake of [14C]aliskiren and [3H]fexofenadine was linear in OATP1A2-expressing cells and was reduced by naringin, with IC50 values of 75.5 ± 11.6 and 24.2 ± 2.0 μM, respectively.


Grapefruit juice decreases exposure of aliskiren partially via inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2.


Aliskiren Grapefruit juice Apple juice Orange juice Organic anion transporting polypeptide transporter 


Declaration of interests

All authors are employees of Novartis Pharmaceuticals and are eligible for Novartis stock and stock options.

Role of the funding source

This study was supported by Novartis Pharma AG.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Rebello
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sally Zhao
    • 1
  • Sam Hariry
    • 1
  • Marion Dahlke
    • 1
  • Natalya Alexander
    • 1
  • Arpine Vapurcuyan
    • 1
  • Imad Hanna
    • 1
  • Venkateswar Jarugula
    • 1
  1. 1.Translational SciencesNovartis Institute for Biomedical ResearchEast HanoverUSA

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