European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 66, Issue 10, pp 1017–1023 | Cite as

Population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in combination with rifampicin-based antitubercular treatment in HIV-infected South African children

  • Doaa Elsherbiny
  • Yuan Ren
  • Helen McIlleron
  • Gary Maartens
  • Ulrika S. H. Simonsson
Pharmacokinetics and Disposition



The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of lopinavir in tuberculosis (TB)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected South African children taking super-boosted lopinavir (lopinavir/ritonavir ratio 1:1) as part of antiretroviral treatment in the presence of rifampicin were compared with the population PK of lopinavir in HIV-infected South African children taking standard doses of lopinavir/ritonavir (ratio 4:1).


Lopinavir concentrations were measured in 15 TB/HIV-co-infected paediatric patients who were sampled during and after rifampicin-based TB treatment and in 15 HIV-infected children without TB. During TB therapy, the dose of ritonavir was increased to lopinavir/ritonavir 1:1 in order to compensate for the induction of rifampicin. The children received median (interquartile range=IQR) doses of lopinavir 292 mg/m2 (274, 309) and ritonavir 301 mg/m2 (286, 309) twice daily. After TB treatment completion the children received standard doses of lopinavir/ritonavir 4:1 (median [IQR] lopinavir dose 289 mg/m2 [286, 303] twice daily) as did those without TB (median [IQR] lopinavir dose 265 mg/m2 [249, 289] twice daily).


Lopinavir oral clearance (CL/F) was about 30% lower in children without TB than in co-infected children treated with super-boosted lopinavir. However, the predicted lopinavir Cmin was above the recommended minimum therapeutic concentration during TB/HIV co-treatment in the 15 children. Lopinavir CL/F increased linearly during the dosing interval.


Increasing the ritonavir dose to achieve a lopinavir/ritonavir ratio of 1:1 when given in combination with rifampicin-based TB treatment did not completely compensate for the enhancement of lopinavir CL/F caused by rifampicin. The time-dependent lopinavir CL/F might be due to a time-dependent recovery from ritonavir inhibition of lopinavir metabolism during the dosing interval.


Lopinavir Ritonavir Pharmacokinetics HIV Tuberculosis 



This study was supported by grants from the South African Department of Health (research programme for the comprehensive HIV and AIDS care, management and treatment plan for South Africa), the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the National Research Foundation South Africa (NRF).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doaa Elsherbiny
    • 1
  • Yuan Ren
    • 2
  • Helen McIlleron
    • 2
  • Gary Maartens
    • 2
  • Ulrika S. H. Simonsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical BiosciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of MedicineUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

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