Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of clazosentan, a parenteral endothelin receptor antagonist
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The purpose of this study was to investigate in healthy male subjects the tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ascending doses of clazosentan, an intravenous endothelin receptor antagonist.
Clazosentan was infused at doses of 3–60 mg/h for 3 h, 60 mg/h for 6 h and at 30 mg/h for 12 h. Each dose was given to a separate group of subjects, six of whom received clazosentan and two placebo. Vital signs, ECG, adverse events, and clinical laboratory variables were monitored to assess tolerability. Blood and urine samples were collected frequently for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic determinations.
Infusion of clazosentan up to doses of 30 mg/h for 3 h was well tolerated. A dose of 60 mg/h and longer infusions were less well tolerated and three subjects did not complete the 12-h infusion of 30 mg/h due to adverse events. Headache was the most commonly reported adverse event followed by nausea, vomiting, and nasal congestion. The pharmacokinetics of clazosentan were dose proportional in the dose range investigated. Values (mean and 95% confidence intervals) for clearance and volume of distribution at a dose of 10 mg/h for 3 h were 42.2 (36.6, 48.7) l/h and 32.4 (27.0, 38.8) l, respectively. Both variables were independent of dose. The elimination of clazosentan was characterized by a very rapid disposition phase with a half-life of 6–10 min. Compared to baseline, endothelin-1 concentrations increased approximately 2-fold after infusion of clazosentan but no dose-dependent relationship could be discerned for this effect.
The observed tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profile warrant further clinical development of clazosentan at lower doses.
KeywordsClazosentan ET receptor antagonist Intravenous administration Entry-into-man study
This study was conducted at the Roche Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Strasbourg, France with Dr. Rainer Schulz as medical investigator. The study was sponsored by F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland. The experiments described in this paper comply with the current laws of France inclusive of ethics approval.
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