Review of the diversity, traits, and ecology of zooxanthellate jellyfishes
Many marine organisms form photosymbioses with zooxanthellae, but some, such as the medusozoans, are less well known. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the diversity of zooxanthellate jellyfishes, to identify key traits of the holobionts, and to examine the impact of these traits on their ecology. Photosymbiosis with zooxanthellae originated at least seven times independently in Medusozoa; of these, five involve taxa with medusae. While most zooxanthellate jellyfishes are found in clades containing mainly non-zooxanthellate members, the sub-order Kolpophorae (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) is comprised—bar a few intriguing exceptions—of only zooxanthellate jellyfishes. We estimate that 20–25% of Scyphozoa species are zooxanthellate (facultative symbiotic species included). Zooxanthellae play a key role in scyphozoan life-cycle and nutrition although substantial variation is observed during ontogeny, or at the intra- and inter-specific levels. Nonetheless, three key traits of zooxanthellate jellyfishes can be identified: (1) zooxanthellate medusae, as holobionts, are generally mixotrophic, deriving their nutrition both from predation and photosynthesis; (2) zooxanthellate polyps, although capable of hosting zooxanthellae rarely depend on them; and (3) zooxanthellae play a key role in the life-cycle of the jellyfish by allowing or facilitating strobilation. We discuss how these traits might help to explain some aspects of the ecology of zooxanthellate jellyfishes—notably their generally low ability to outbreak, and their reaction to temperature stress or to eutrophication—and how they could in turn impact marine ecosystem functioning.
First we would like to thank Patricia Kremer and Alan Verde who provided some unpublished data on Linuche unguiculata and Cassiopea xamachana, respectively. We would also like to thank Ferdinando Boero and André Cararra Morandini for pointing us to some hard to find literature. We thank Bella Galil, Ilka Straehler-Pohl and Sho Toshino for details about some of their work. We also thank Kylie Pitt and one anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments and suggestions. Finally, we thank Natalia Llopis Monferrer for the artwork in Fig. 3.
This work is part of the Ph.D. project of Nicolas Djeghri, funded by the University of Brest (UBO).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any work involving animals performed by any of the authors.
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