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Marine Biology

, 164:188 | Cite as

Phylogeography of two intertidal seaweeds, Gelidium lingulatum and G. rex (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales), along the South East Pacific: patterns explained by rafting dispersal?

  • Boris A. López
  • Florence TellierEmail author
  • Juan C. Retamal-Alarcón
  • Karla Pérez-Araneda
  • Ariel O. Fierro
  • Erasmo C. Macaya
  • Fadia Tala
  • Martin Thiel
Original paper

Abstract

Rafting on floating seaweeds facilitates dispersal of associated organisms, but there is little information on how rafting affects the genetic structure of epiphytic seaweeds. Previous studies indicate a high presence of seaweeds from the genus Gelidium attached to floating bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot. Herein, we analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of Gelidium lingulatum (Kützing 1868) and G. rex (Santelices and Abbott 1985), species that are partially co-distributed along the Chilean coast (28°S–42°S). A total of 319 individuals from G. lingulatum and 179 from G. rex (20 and 11 benthic localities, respectively) were characterized using a mitochondrial marker (COI) and, for a subset, using a chloroplastic marker (rbcL). Gelidium lingulatum had higher genetic diversity, but its genetic structure did not follow a clear geographic pattern, while G. rex had less genetic diversity with a shallow genetic structure and a phylogeographic break coinciding with the phylogeographic discontinuity described for this region (29°S–33°S). In G. lingulatum, no isolation-by-distance was observed, in contrast to G. rex. The phylogeographic pattern of G. lingulatum could be explained mainly by rafting dispersal as an epiphyte of D. antarctica, although other mechanisms cannot be completely ruled out (e.g., human-mediated dispersal). The contrasting pattern observed in G. rex could be attributed to other factors such as intertidal distribution (i.e., G. rex occurs in the lower zone compared to G. lingulatum) or differential efficiency of recruitment after long-distance dispersal. This study indicates that rafting dispersal, in conjunction with the intertidal distribution, can modulate the phylogeographic patterns of seaweeds.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financed by the following grants: CONICYT/FONDECYT 1131082 to MT, F. Tala and F. Tellier, CONICYT/FONDECYT 1110437 to EM, and CONICYT/FONDECYT 11121504 to F. Tellier. BL received financial support by PhD-fellowship Beca CONICYT-PCHA/Doctorado Nacional/2014-21140010. Additional support came from International Research Network “Diversity, Evolution and Biotechnology of Marine Algae” (GDRI N ̊ 0803). The collaboration of Óscar Pino, José Pantoja, Alvaro Gallardo, Solange Pacheco, Ricardo Jeldres, María Fabiola Monsalvez, Ariel Cáceres, Ulyces Urtubia, Vieia Villalobos and Tim Kiessling in field activities is gratefully acknowledged. The valuable comments from two anonymous referees were very helpful in improving the original manuscript. We are grateful to Lucas Eastman for checking the language of the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Human and animals rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

227_2017_3219_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (287 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 286 kb)
227_2017_3219_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (41 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 41 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris A. López
    • 1
    • 2
  • Florence Tellier
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Juan C. Retamal-Alarcón
    • 3
  • Karla Pérez-Araneda
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ariel O. Fierro
    • 3
  • Erasmo C. Macaya
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  • Fadia Tala
    • 8
    • 9
  • Martin Thiel
    • 6
    • 8
    • 10
  1. 1.Doctorado en Biología y Ecología AplicadaUniversidad Católica del NorteCoquimboChile
  2. 2.Departamento de Acuicultura y Recursos AgroalimentariosUniversidad de Los LagosOsornoChile
  3. 3.Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Católica de la Santísima ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  4. 4.Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Ambientes Sustentables (CIBAS)Universidad Católica de la Santísima ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  5. 5.Laboratorio de Estudios Algales ALGALAB, Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y OceanográficasUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  6. 6.Millennium Nucleus Ecology and Sustainable Management of Oceanic Island (ESMOI)CoquimboChile
  7. 7.Centro FONDAP de Investigaciones en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL)ValdiviaChile
  8. 8.Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del MarUniversidad Católica del NorteCoquimboChile
  9. 9.Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA)Universidad Católica del NorteCoquimboChile
  10. 10.Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA)CoquimboChile

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