Marine Biology

, 164:119 | Cite as

Spatial overlaps of foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes breeding in the English Channel with existing marine protected areas

  • Aurore Ponchon
  • Christophe Aulert
  • Gilles Le Guillou
  • Fabrice Gallien
  • Clara Péron
  • David Grémillet
Original paper

Abstract

The English Channel is one of the most anthropized marine ecosystems due to increasing human pressures, both along the coasts and at sea. Numerous marine protected areas (MPAs) have been created in this area but their ecological relevance still needs to be demonstrated for mobile species such as seabirds. Here, we identified the at-sea foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes to quantify their spatial overlap with existing neighbouring MPAs. Using solar-powered GPS-UHF, we tracked at-sea trips of 36 kittiwakes breeding at three colonies along the French coasts of the English Channel: Boulogne-sur-Mer (Hauts-de-France, n = 11), Fécamp (Normandy, n = 14) and Saint-Pierre-du-Mont (Normandy, n = 11). While kittiwakes nesting at the two Normand colonies shared some of their foraging areas, birds from Boulogne-sur-Mer did not overlap their foraging areas with Normand birds. GPS-tracked birds from all three colonies remained close to the shore (<30 km) and mainly remained within French national waters. The existing MPA network encompassed >60% of all recorded locations, but MPA use was largely colony-specific. Habitat models built to predict habitat suitability confirmed that some MPAs encompassed highly suitable foraging and resting habitats for black-legged kittiwakes in the English Channel. Connectivity between the studied colonies was high, as indicated by inter-colony prospecting movements recorded in two individuals which supposedly failed their reproduction. Overall, this work highlights that marine species such as seabirds could benefit from existing MPAs. Nevertheless, the diversity of MPA types and their different roles complicates their effectiveness to protect marine biodiversity.

Supplementary material

227_2017_3151_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (257 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 256 kb)

References

  1. Barrett RT (2007) Food web interactions in the southwestern Barents Sea: black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla respond negatively to an increase in herring Clupea harengus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 349:269–276. doi:10.3354/meps07116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bost CA, Cotté C, Bailleul F, Cherel Y, Charrassin JB, Guinet C, Ainley DG, Weimerskirch H (2009) The importance of oceanographic fronts to marine birds and mammals of the southern oceans. J Mar Syst 78:363–376. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boulinier T, Danchin E, Monnat JY, Doutrelant C, Cadiou B (1996) Timing of prospecting and the value of information in a colonial breeding bird. J Avian Biol 27:252–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown JL (2014) SDMtoolbox: a python-based GIS toolkit for landscape genetic, biogeographic and species distribution model analyses. Methods Ecol Evol 5:694–700. doi:10.1111/2041-210X.12200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cadiou B (2011) Cinquième recensement national des oiseaux marins nicheurs en France métropolitaine 2009–2011. Première synthèse: bilan intermédiaire 2009–2010. Groupement d’intérêt scientifique oiseaux marinsGoogle Scholar
  6. Cadiou B, Pons J-M, Yésou P (2004) Oiseaux marins nicheurs de France métropolitaine (1960–2000). Editions Biotope, MèzeGoogle Scholar
  7. Calenge C (2006) The package “adehabitat” for the R software: a tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals. Ecol Model 197:516–519. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cam E, Hines JE, Monnat JY, Nichols JD, Danchin E (1998) Are adult non breeders prudent parents? The kittiwake model. Ecology 79:2917–2930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cam E, Monnat J-Y, Hines JE (2003) Long-term fitness consequences of early conditions in the kittiwake. J Anim Ecol 72:411–424. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00708.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chivers LS, Lundy MG, Colhoun K, Newton SF, Houghton JDR, Reid N (2012) Foraging trip time-activity budgets and reproductive success in the black-legged kittiwake. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 456:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chivers LS, Lundy MG, Colhoun K, Newton SF, Houghton JDR, Reid N (2013) Identifying optimal feeding habitat and proposed marine protected areas (pMPAs) for the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) suggests a need for complementary management approaches. Biol Conserv 164:73–81. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.04.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coulson JC (2011) The kittiwake. T & AD Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Danchin E, Cam E (2002) Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:153–163. doi:10.1007/s00265-001-0423-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Danchin E, Boulinier T, Massot M (1998) Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: implications for the study of coloniality. Ecology 79:2415–2428. doi:10.1890/0012-9658 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dauvin J-C (2012) Are the eastern and western basins of the English Channel two separate ecosystems? Mar Pollut Bull 64:463–471. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Debout G, Gallien F, Le Guillou G, Purenne R, Jacob Y, Chartier A, Calais L, Le Guillou D (2013) Etude des zones d’alimentation des mouettes tridactyles (Rissa tridactyla) sur la colonie de Saint-Pierre-du-Mont/14. Année 1: étude de faisabilité de capture d’adultes nicheurs. Synthèse bibliographique et bilan des essais de captureGoogle Scholar
  17. Elith J, Graham HC, Anderson PR, Dudík M, Ferrier S, Guisan A, Hijmans JR, Huettmann F, Leathwick RJ, Lehmann A, Li J, Lohmann GL, Loiselle AB, Manion G, Moritz C, Nakamura M, Nakazawa Y, Overton JM, Townsend PA, Phillips JS, Richardson K, Scachetti-Pereira R, Schapire ER, Soberón J, Williams S, Wisz SM, Zimmermann EN (2006) Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29:129–151. doi:10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04596.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elith J, Phillips SJ, Hastie T, Dudík M, Chee YE, Yates CJ (2011) A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Divers Distrib 17:43–57. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00725.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frederiksen M, Wright PJ, Harris MP, Mavor RA, Heubeck M, Wanless S (2005) Regional patterns of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla breeding success are related to variability in sandeel recruitment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 300:201–211. doi:10.3354/meps300201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Furness RW, Tasker ML (2000) Seabird-fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance, and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 202:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gallien F, Purenne R, Jacob Y, Le Guillou G, Debout G (2014) Suivi de la mouette tridactyle en période de reproduction en Normandie: Colonies de Saint-Pierre-du-Mont, Englesqueville-la-Percée, La Poterie-Cap d’Antifer et Fécamp - Saison 2014. Groupe Ornithologique NormandGoogle Scholar
  22. Grémillet D, Dell’Omo G, Ryan PG, Peters G, Ropert-Coudert Y, Weeks SJ (2004) Offshore diplomacy, or how seabirds mitigate intra-specific competition: a case study based on GPS tracking of Cape gannets from neighbouring colonies. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 268:265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grémillet D, Péron C, Pons J-B, Ouni R, Authier M, Thévenet M, Fort J (2014) Irreplaceable area extends marine conservation hotspot off Tunisia: insights from GPS-tracking Scopoli’s shearwaters from the largest seabird colony in the Mediterranean. Mar Biol 161:2669–2680. doi:10.1007/s00227-014-2538-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EMP, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halpern BS, Frazier M, Potapenko J, Casey KS, Koenig K, Longo C, Lowndes JS, Rockwood RC, Selig ER, Selkoe KA, Walbridge S (2015) Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world’s ocean. Nature Commun 6:7615. doi:10.1038/ncomms8615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heggøy O, Christensen-Dalsgaard S, Ranke PS, Chastel O, Bech C (2015) GPS-loggers influence behaviour and physiology in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 521:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hijmans RJ (2015) Raster: geographic data analysis and modeling. R package version 2.3-24. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=raster
  28. Hooker SK, Cañadas A, Hyrenbach KD, Corrigan C, Polovina JJ, Reeves RR (2011) Making protected area networks effective for marine top predators. Endanger Species Res 13:203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Juignet C (2014) Suivi 2014 des colonies de Mouettes tridactyles Rissa tridactyla au Cap Blanc-Nez et au port de Boulogne-sur-Mer, Nord-Pas-de-CalaisGoogle Scholar
  30. Korotenko KA, Sentchev AV, Schmitt FG (2012) Effect of variable winds on current structure and Reynolds stresses in a tidal flow: analysis of experimental data in the Eastern English Channel. Ocean Sci 8:1025–1040. doi:10.5194/os-8-1025-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kotzerka J, Garthe S, Hatch SA (2010) GPS tracking devices reveal foraging strategies of black-legged kittiwakes. J Ornithol 151:459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lascelles BG, Langham GM, Ronconi RA, Reid JB (2012) From hotspots to site protection: identifying marine protected areas for seabirds around the globe. Biol Conserv 156:5–14. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Louzao M, Delord K, Garcia D, Boué A, Weimerskirch H (2012) Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater. PLoS One 7:e35728. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035728 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McClellan CM, Brereton T, Dell’Amico F, Johns DG, Cucknell A-C, Patrick SC, Penrose R, Ridoux V, Solandt J-L, Stephan E, Votier SC, Williams R, Godley BJ (2014) Understanding the distribution of marine megafauna in the english channel region: identifying key habitats for conservation within the busiest seaway on earth. PLoS One 9:e89720. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089720 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Owen E, Daunt F, Moffat C, Elston DA, Wanless S, Thompson P (2013) Analysis of fatty acids and fatty alcohols reveals seasonal and sex-specific changes in the diets of seabirds. Mar Biol 160:987–999. doi:10.1007/s00227-012-2152-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Paredes R, Harding AMA, Irons DB, Roby DD, Suryan RM, Orben RA, Renner H, Young R, Kitaysky AS (2012) Proximity to multiple foraging habitats enhances seabirds’ resilience to local food shortages. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 471:253–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Paredes R, Orben RA, Suryan RM, Irons DB, Roby DD, Harding AMA, Young RC, Benoit-Bird K, Ladd C, Renner H, Heppell S, Phillips RA, Kitaysky AS (2014) Foraging responses of black-legged kittiwakes to prolonged food-shortages around colonies on the Bering Sea shelf. PLoS One 9:e92520. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Péron C, Grémillet D (2013) Tracking through life stages: adult, immature and juvenile autumn migration in a long-lived seabird. PLoS One 8:e72713. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Péron C, Grémillet D, Prudor A, Pettex E, Saraux C, Soriano-Redondo A, Authier M, Fort J (2013) Importance of coastal marine protected areas for the conservation of pelagic seabirds: the case of vulnerable yelkouan shearwaters in the Mediterranean Sea. Biol Conserv 168:210–221. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Phillips SJ, Dudík M (2008) Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography 31:161–175. doi:10.1111/j.0906-7590.2008.5203.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Model 190:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ponchon A, Grémillet D, Doligez B, Chambert T, Tveraa T, González-Solís J, Boulinier T (2013) Tracking prospecting movements involved in breeding habitat selection: insights, pitfalls and perspectives. Methods Ecol Evol 4:143–150. doi:10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00259.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ponchon A, Grémillet D, Christensen-Dalsgaard S, Erikstad KE, Barrett RT, Reiertsen TK, McCoy KD, Tveraa T, Boulinier T (2014) When things go wrong: intra-season dynamics of breeding failure in a seabird. Ecosphere 5:4. doi:10.1890/ES13-00233.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ponchon A, Chambert T, Lobato E, Tveraa T, Grémillet D, Boulinier T (2015) Breeding failure induces large scale prospecting movements in the back-legged kittiwake. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 473:138–145. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2015.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ponchon A, Iliszko L, Grémillet D, Tveraa T, Boulinier T (2017) Intense prospecting movements of failed breeders nesting in an unsuccessful breeding subcolony. Anim Behav 124:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Purenne R, Jacob Y, Le Guillou G, Debout G, Gallien F (2013) Suivi de la mouette tridactyle en période de nidification en Normandie—Colonies de Saint-Pierre-du-Mont, Englesqueville-la-Percée, La Poterie-Cap d’Antifer et FécampGoogle Scholar
  47. Robertson GS, Bolton M, Grecian WJ, Monaghan P (2014) Inter- and intra-year variation in foraging areas of breeding kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Mar Biol 161:1973–1986. doi:10.1007/s00227-014-2477-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rodríguez-Rodríguez D, Rees S, Mannaerts G, Sciberras M, Pirie C, Black G, Aulert C, Sheehan EV, Carrier S, Attrill MJ (2015) Status of the marine protected area network across the English channel (La Manche): cross-country similarities and differences in MPA designation, management and monitoring. Mar Policy 51:536–546. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2014.09.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ropert-Coudert Y, Grémillet D, Kato A, Ryan PG, Naito Y, Le Maho Y (2004) A fine-scale time budget of Cape gannets provides insights into the foraging strategies of coastal seabirds. Anim Behav 67:985–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Skov H, Durinck J, Leopold MF, Tasker ML (1995) Important bird areas for seabirds in the North Sea including the Channel and the Kattegat. Bird Life Int, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Swets KA (1988) Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 240:1285–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  53. Thaxter CB, Lascelles B, Sugar K, Cook ASCP, Roos S, Bolton M, Langston RHW, Burton NHK (2012) Seabird foraging ranges as a preliminary tool for identifying candidate marine protected areas. Biol Conserv 156:53–61. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wanless S, Frederiksen M, Daunt F, Scott BE, Harris MP (2007) Black-legged kittiwakes as indicators of environmental change in the North Sea: evidence from long-term studies. Prog Oceanogr 72:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Worton BJ (1989) Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology 70:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175CNRS-Université de Montpellier-Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier-EPHEMontpellierFrance
  2. 2.Antenne Manche-Mer du Nord de l’Agence des Aires Marines ProtégéesLe Havre CedexFrance
  3. 3.Groupe Ornithologique NormandCaenFrance
  4. 4.MARBEC (MARine Biodiverity Exploitation and Conservation) UMR 248, IRDUniversity of MontpellierMontpellier Cedex 5France
  5. 5.FitzPatrick Institute, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence at the University of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations