Incubation increases oxidative imbalance compared to chick rearing in a seabird, the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)
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It is expected that activities which require a high use of energy could generate higher oxidative stress. In the present study, we have compared two breeding periods (incubation and chick rearing) with different energetic demands in the Magellanic penguin, predicting a higher oxidative unbalance during chick rearing since involves higher demanding activities such as chick feeding and greater nest protection than during incubation. Specifically, we predicted higher oxidative damage and lower antioxidant defences during chick rearing than during incubation. Fieldwork was conducted in a Magellanic penguin colony located in Estancia San Lorenzo (42°05′S, 63°49′W), Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, during the breeding season of 2014–2015. Surprisingly, our results did not support our initial prediction. Incubating adults had their oxidative status unbalanced showing significantly lower antioxidant levels than those rearing chicks. Moreover, oxidative damage did not show any significant variation between both breeding periods. Further, we did not find differences in oxidative status between sexes. Our results suggest that incubation is a highly demanding activity compared to chick rearing in terms of oxidative balance since the lower presence of antioxidants can be explained as they have probably depleted to limit oxidative damage by ROS. Differential foraging effort could explain such results as Magellanic penguins adjust their foraging location to prey availability performing longer foraging trips during incubation than during chick rearing which increases the energy costs and therefore imbalance penguins oxidative status. Our results show the importance of examining physiological markers such as oxidative stress to assess differences during the breeding cycle and how the behaviour at sea could explain such differences in seabirds.
KeywordsBreeding Period Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Magellanic Penguin Chick Rear Total Plasma Antioxidant Capacity
Export and import permits for biological samples were acquired from government authorities in both Argentina and Spain. We thank D. A. Saban and A. Medina Vanina for field assistance and laboratory advice, respectively, Dominic L. Cram for helpful comments on an early version of the paper and finally, our thanks to E. Serrano-Davies for her help drawing the maps. Deborah Fuldauer corrected the English language usage. This study was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CTM2011-24427) and Multiannual Research Projects-CONICET (PIP 112-20110100680). RCC received financial aid from an FPI and a mobility grant from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (BES2012-059299 and EEBB-I-14-078877), and EC has a CONICET doctoral fellowship. This study is a contribution to the PINGUCLIM project.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All animal handling and experimental procedures were approved by the Office of Tourism and Protected Areas of Chubut Province and Fauna and Flora Department, Argentina.
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