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Marine Biology

, 163:215 | Cite as

Genotype-by-environment interactions during early development of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus

  • Natalí J. Delorme
  • Mary A. Sewell
Original paper

Abstract

The increase in seawater temperature due to anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect population persistence and changes in distributional ranges of marine species. Adaptation to warmer environmental conditions will be determined by the presence of tolerant genotypes within a population. The present study determined the genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions during early development of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus cultured at 18 °C (mean annual temperature), 21 °C (ambient summer temperature) and 24 °C (+3 °C above ambient summer temperature). The experiment was performed in 3 experimental blocks using gametes from 3 males and 3 females crossed in all combinations (North Carolina II cross-breeding design), resulting in 9 families per experimental block (i.e., total of 27 families). Differences between female and male identities were quantified during cleavage and gastrulation: Reaction norms (i.e., interaction plots) showed a clear G × E interaction, with some genotypes performing better than others at high temperatures. Heritability during gastrulation was 0.51, indicating that 51 % of the variability corresponds to genetic variation. Overall, the present study shows that seawater temperature has a negative effect on early development of E. chloroticus; however, there are resilient genotypes in the studied population that could provide the genetic potential to adapt to future ocean conditions.

Keywords

Seawater Temperature Additive Genetic Variance Total Phenotypic Variance Female Identity Abnormal Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Errol Murray and Peter Browne for helping with setup of the experiment; Brady Doak for providing necessary equipment for animal collection; Leonardo Zamora for helping with animal collection, spawning induction and sampling; and Erica Zarate for statistical assistance. NJD was supported by a Chilean Government Scholarship (Becas Chile, CONICYT).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of the animals were followed.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Leigh Marine Laboratory, Institute of Marine ScienceUniversity of AucklandWarkworthNew Zealand

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