Genotype-by-environment interactions during early development of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus
The increase in seawater temperature due to anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect population persistence and changes in distributional ranges of marine species. Adaptation to warmer environmental conditions will be determined by the presence of tolerant genotypes within a population. The present study determined the genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions during early development of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus cultured at 18 °C (mean annual temperature), 21 °C (ambient summer temperature) and 24 °C (+3 °C above ambient summer temperature). The experiment was performed in 3 experimental blocks using gametes from 3 males and 3 females crossed in all combinations (North Carolina II cross-breeding design), resulting in 9 families per experimental block (i.e., total of 27 families). Differences between female and male identities were quantified during cleavage and gastrulation: Reaction norms (i.e., interaction plots) showed a clear G × E interaction, with some genotypes performing better than others at high temperatures. Heritability during gastrulation was 0.51, indicating that 51 % of the variability corresponds to genetic variation. Overall, the present study shows that seawater temperature has a negative effect on early development of E. chloroticus; however, there are resilient genotypes in the studied population that could provide the genetic potential to adapt to future ocean conditions.
KeywordsSeawater Temperature Additive Genetic Variance Total Phenotypic Variance Female Identity Abnormal Embryo
The authors would like to thank Errol Murray and Peter Browne for helping with setup of the experiment; Brady Doak for providing necessary equipment for animal collection; Leonardo Zamora for helping with animal collection, spawning induction and sampling; and Erica Zarate for statistical assistance. NJD was supported by a Chilean Government Scholarship (Becas Chile, CONICYT).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of the animals were followed.
- Barker M (2013) Evechinus chloroticus. In: John ML (ed) Developments in aquaculture and fisheries science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 355–368Google Scholar
- Calosi P, Rastrick SPS, Lombardi C, de Guzman HJ, Davidson L, Jahnke M, Giangrande A, Hardege JD, Schulze A, Spicer JI, Gambi M-C (2013) Adaptation and acclimatization to ocean acidification in marine ectotherms: an in situ transplant experiment with polychaetes at a shallow CO2 vent system. Phil Trans R Soc B. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0444 Google Scholar
- Falconer DS, Mackay TFC (1996) Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longman, EssexGoogle Scholar
- Foo SA, Sparks KM, Uthicke S, Karelitz S, Barker M, Byrne M, Lamare M (2016) Contributions of genetic and environmental variance in early development of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri in response to increased ocean temperature and acidification. Mar Biol 163:1–11. doi: 10.1007/s00227-016-2903-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Franke ES (2005) Aspects of fertilization ecology in Evechinus chloroticus and Coscinasterias muricata. PhD-Biological Sciences, University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
- Hochachka PW, Somero GN (2002) Biochemical adaptation: mechanism and process in physiological evolution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impact, adaptation and vulnerability. Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Kvingedal R, Evans BS, Lind CE, Taylor JJU, Dupont-Nivet M, Jerry DR (2010) Population and family growth response to different rearing location, heritability estimates and genotype × environment interaction in the silver-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada maxima). Aquaculture 304:1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.02.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu X, Xiang J, Chang Y, Ding J, Cao X (2004) Study on heritability of growth in the juvenile sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. J Shellfish Res 23(2):593–597Google Scholar
- Lynch M, Walsh B (1998) Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- Nduwumuremyi A, Tongoona P, Habimana S (2013) Mating designs: helpful tool for quantitative plant breeding analysis. J Plant Breed Genet 1:117–129Google Scholar
- West-Eberhard MJ (2003) Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Willmer P (1999) Environmental physiology of animals. Blackwell Publisher, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar