Seasonally fluctuating chemical microfouling control in Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea
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Microfouling in temperate seas underlies seasonal variations. Thus, perennial macroalgae are exposed to fluctuating levels of fouling pressure. Only few studies have examined the link between fouling pressure and algal fouling control. We assessed whether microfouling control of F. vesiculosus and F. serratus against prokaryotes and pennate diatoms fluctuates with season and correlates with microfouling pressure in a 1-year field survey. Microfouler recruitment on glass (reference surface) and on Fucus, microfouling control strength of Fucus surface metabolites (tested by an in situ bioassay approach) and Fucus tissue mannitol content (used as proxy for energy availability) were determined monthly. Microfouling pressure (settled cells per unit time and area) and microfouling control of Fucus varied seasonally. Both Fucus species exhibited cuticula shedding in all seasons. We conclude that microfouling control in both Fucus species showed a lagged or synchronized relationship with mannitol or microfouling pressure.
KeywordsSurface Extract Control Strength Antifouling Activity Solvent Blank Thallus Surface
The authors acknowledge Nadja Stärck for her support and technical advices during fieldwork and extraction procedure, Melanie Schulz for her patiently enumeration of microfoulers and Shasha Wang for creative discussions regarding the in situ bioassay experiment. We thank Dr Rolf Schmaljohann for Fucus sample preparation for electron microscopy and Esther Appel for the introduction into SEM and assistance during our SEM study. The authors thank the Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology (IKMB) at the Kiel University for permission to use the microscope facilities and especially Susanne Billmann for organization and technical assistance regarding epifluorescence microscopy. We thank Dr Yasmin Appelhans for proofreading the final manuscript.
This study was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG, project number WA 708/24-1).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Esther Rickert declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mark Lenz declares that he has no conflict of interest. Francisco R. Barboza declares that he has no conflict of interest. Stanislav N. Gorb declares that he has no conflict of interest. Martin Wahl declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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