Withstanding multiple stressors: ephyrae of the moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita, Scyphozoa) in a high-temperature, high-CO2 and low-oxygen environment
- 808 Downloads
Global change is affecting marine ecosystems through a combination of different stressors such as warming, ocean acidification and oxygen depletion. Very little is known about the interactions among these factors, especially with respect to gelatinous zooplankton. Therefore, in this study we investigated the direct effects of pH, temperature and oxygen availability on the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, concentrating on the ephyral life stage. Starved one-day-old ephyrae were exposed to a range of pCO2 (400–4000 ppm) and three different dissolved oxygen levels (from saturated to hypoxic conditions), in two different temperatures (5 and 15 °C) for 7 days. Carbon content and swimming activity were analysed at the end of the incubation period, and mortality noted. General linearized models were fitted through the data, with the best fitting models including two- and three-way interactions between pCO2, temperature and oxygen concentration. The combined effect of the stressors was small but significant, with the clearest negative effect on growth caused by the combination of all three stressors present (high temperature, high CO2, low oxygen). We conclude that A. aurita ephyrae are robust and that they are not likely to suffer from these environmental stressors in a near future.
KeywordsOcean Acidification Swimming Activity Gelatinous Zooplankton Extreme Treatment Moon Jellyfish
We want to thank our colleagues from R/V Aade, as well as Saskia Ohse, Ursula Ecker and Sylvia Peters for technical support. Thanks also to Dr. Björn Rost and his group (Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Phytoplankton Ecophysiology), specially to Laura Wischnewski, for hosting and helping us with the carbonate chemistry analyses. We also thank Dr. Luis Giménez Noya (Bangor University) for statistical advice. Financial support for this study was provided by the German Ministry of Education and Research through phase II (BMBF, FKZ 03F0655A) and III (BMBF, FKZ 03F0728B) of the BIOACID (Biological Impacts of Ocean ACIDification) project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Cawood AM (2012) Laboratory and in situ investigations of factors affecting the growth and survivorship of the Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia sp1. Ph.D. thesisGoogle Scholar
- Condon RH, Graham WM, Duarte CM, Pitt KA, Lucas CH, Haddock SHD, Sutherland KR, Robinson KL, Dawson MN, Decker MB, Mills CE, Purcell JE, Malej A, Mianzan H, S-i U, Gelcich S, Madin LP (2012) Questioning the rise of gelatinous zooplankton in the world’s oceans. Bioscience 62:160–169. doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.2.9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
- Ishii H, Kojima S, Tanaka Y (2004) Survivorship and production of Aurelia aurita ephyrae in the innermost part of Tokyo Bay, Japan. Plankton Biol Ecol 51:26–35Google Scholar
- Kramp PL (1937) Polypdr (Coelentarata), II. Gopler. Danmarks Fauna 43:1–223Google Scholar
- Lesniowski TJ, Gambill M, Holst S, Peck MA, Algueró-Muñiz M, Haunost M, Malzahn AM, Boersma M (2015) Effects of food and CO2 on growth dynamics of polyps of two scyphozoan species (Cyanea capillata and Chrysaora hysoscella). Mar Biol 162:1371–1382. doi: 10.1007/s00227-015-2660-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lewis E, Wallace D, Allison LJ (1998) Program developed for CO2 system calculations. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation for the US Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
- Queirós AM, Fernandes JA, Faulwetter S, Nunes J, Rastrick SPS, Mieszkowska N, Artioli Y, Yool A, Calosi P, Arvanitidis C, Findlay HS, Barange M, Cheung WWL, Widdicombe S (2015) Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 21:130–143. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robbins LL, Hansen ME, Kleypas JA, Meylan SC (2010) CO2calc: a user-friendly seawater carbon calculator for Windows, Max OS X, and iOS (iPhone). U.S. Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
- Rosenzweig C, Karoly D, Vicarelli M, Neofotis P, Wu Q, Casassa G, Menzel A, Root TL, Estrella N, Seguin B, Tryjanowski P, Liu C, Rawlins S, Imeson A (2008) Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature 453:353–357. doi: 10.1038/nature06937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shoji J, Masuda R, Yamashita Y, Tanaka M (2005) Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentrations on behavior and predation rates on red sea bream Pagrus major larvae by the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and by juvenile Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius. Mar Biol 147:863–868. doi: 10.1007/s00227-005-1579-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki K, Yasuda A, Murata Y, Kumakura E, Yamada S, Endo N, Nogata Y (2016) Quantitative effects of pycnocline and dissolved oxygen on vertical distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l.: a case study of Mikawa Bay. Japan. Hydrobiologia 766:151–163. doi: 10.1007/s10750-015-2451-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar