Marine Biology

, 163:47 | Cite as

Marine life of the sea trout

  • Eva B. ThorstadEmail author
  • Christopher D. Todd
  • Ingebrigt Uglem
  • Pål Arne Bjørn
  • Patrick G. Gargan
  • Knut Wiik Vollset
  • Elina Halttunen
  • Steinar Kålås
  • Marius Berg
  • Bengt Finstad
Review, concept, and synthesis


An understanding of when and where sea trout Salmo trutta L. are located at sea is essential to the effective management of local populations and in evaluating their vulnerability to salmon lice and other anthropogenic threats. Here we review the available literature on sea trout life-history strategies, behaviour and habitat use in the marine environment, including feeding, growth, survival and homing. There is considerable variation in life-history strategies among individuals and populations and in the timing and duration of marine migration(s). Females tend to adopt the anadromous strategy more than do males. Smolts typically leave rivers in spring (March–June in European rivers), but also at other times of the year. Post-smolts may remain at sea during the summer and return to freshwater to over-winter; adults thereafter spend summers at sea and winters in freshwater, or they can remain at sea until they later return to freshwater for spawning. Sea trout frequently are recorded at sea during winter and can tolerate full-salinity sea water at water temperatures as low as 1–2 °C. Sea trout often remain within 80 km of their river of origin, but also may undertake longer-distance marine migrations (>500 km). The duration and timing of marine migration both are likely governed by trade-offs between mortality risk and growth potential in different habitats, and the most beneficial strategy may vary among individuals and populations. Reduced marine growth and increased marine mortality will reduce the benefit of marine migrations and may result in selection against anadromy.


Atlantic Salmon Brown Trout Salmon Louse Seaward Migration Marine Migration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The project was funded by the Norwegian Seafood Research Fund (FHF, project number 900950). We thank Kjell Maroni (FHF) for the cooperation. We also thank Torgeir B. Havn (NINA) for help with editing of references and the NINA library, especially Ruth Bergmann, for accessing literature. Morten A. Bergan (NINA), Jan G. Davidsen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU), J. Fernandez, Niels Jepsen (DTU Aqua), Geir Magne Knutsen (Bremnes Seashore AS), Ketil Rykhus (Norwegian Seafood Federation, FHL), Ola Ugedal (NINA) and one anonymous reviewer is thanked for commenting on earlier drafts of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aarestrup K, Jepsen N (1998) Spawning migration of sea trout (Salmo trutta (L)) in a Danish river. Hydrobiologia 371(372):275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aarestrup K, Nielsen C, Koed A (2002) Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts in relation to environmental factors. Hydrobiologia 483:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aarestrup K, Baktoft H, Koed A, del Villar D, Thorstad EB (2014) Comparison of the riverine and early marine migration behaviour and survival of wild and hatchery-reared sea trout Salmo trutta smolts. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 496:197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aarestrup K, Baktoft H, Thorstad EB, Svendsen JC, Höjesjö J, Koed A (2015) Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts (Salmo trutta L.) during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 535:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon (2015) Status of Norwegian salmon stocks in 2015. Rep Nor Sci Advis Comm Atl Salmon Manag 8:1–300 (in Norwegian) Google Scholar
  6. Bendall B, Moore A, Quayle V (2005) The post-spawning movements of migratory brown trout Salmo trutta L. J Fish Biol 67:809–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg OK, Berg M (1987a) Migrations of sea trout, Salmo trutta L., from the Vardnes River in Northern Norway. J Fish Biol 31:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg OK, Berg M (1987b) The seasonal pattern of growth of the sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) from the Vardnes River in northern Norway. Aquaculture 62:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg OK, Berg M (1989) The duration of sea and freshwater residence of the sea trout, Salmo trutta, from the Vardnes River in northern Norway. Environ Biol Fish 24:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg OK, Jonsson B (1989) Migratory patterns of anadromous Atlantic salmon, brown trout, and Arctic charr from the Vardnes river in northern Norway. In: Brannon E, Jonsson B (eds) Proceedings of the salmonid migration and distribution symposium. Seattle, School of Fisheries, University of Washington, pp 106–115Google Scholar
  11. Berg OK, Jonsson B (1990) Growth and survival rates of the anadromous trout, Salmo trutta, from the Vardnes River, northern Norway. Environ Biol Fish 29:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bohlin T, Dellefors C, Faremo U (1993) Timing of sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolt migration: effects of climate variation. Can J Fish Aquatic Sci 50:1132–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohlin T, Dellefors C, Faremo U (1996) Date of smolt migration depends on body-size but not age in wild sea-run brown trout. J Fish Biol 49:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bond MH, Miller JA, Quinn TP (2015) Beyond dichotomous life histories in partially migrating populations: cessation of anadromy in a long-lived fish. Ecology 96:1899–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borgstrøm R, Heggenes J (1988) Smoltification of sea trout (Salmo trutta) at short length as an adaptation to extremely low summer stream flow. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 35:375–384Google Scholar
  16. Butler JRA, Walker AF (2006) Characteristics of the sea trout Salmo trutta (L.) stock collapse in the River Ewe (Wester Ross, Scotland), in 1988–2001. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 45–59Google Scholar
  17. Butler JRA, Radford A, Riddington G, Laughton R (2009) Evaluating an ecosystem service provided by Atlantic salmon, sea trout and other fish species in the River Spey, Scotland: the economic impact of recreational rod fisheries. Fish Res 96:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Byrne CJ, Poole R, Dillane M, Rogan G, Whelan KF (2004) Temporal and environmental influences on the variation in sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) smolt migration in the Burrishoole system in the west of Ireland from 1971 to 2000. Fish Res 66:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cabballero P, Cobo F, González MA (2006) Life history of a sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) population from the north-west Iberian Peninsula (River Ulla, Galicia, Spain). In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 234–247Google Scholar
  20. Campbell JS (1977) Spawning characteristics of brown trout and sea trout Salmo trutta L. in Kirk Burn, River Tweed, Scotland. J Fish Biol 11:217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carlsen KT, Berg OK, Finstad B, Heggberget TG (2004) Diel periodicity and environmental influence on the smolt migration of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, in northern Norway. Environ Biol Fish 70:403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Charles K, Guyomard R, Hoyheim B, Ombredane D, Baglinière J-L (2005) Lack of genetic differentiation between anadromous and resident sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Normandy population. Aquat Living Resour 18:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Charles K, Roussel J-M, Lebel J-M, Baglinière J-L (2006) Genetic differentiation between anadromous and freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): insights obtained from stable isotope analysis. Ecol Freshw Fish 15:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chernitsky AG, Zabruskov GV, Ermolaev VV, Shkurko DS (1995) Life history of trout, Salmo trutta L., in the Varsina River estuary, (The Barents Sea). Nord J Freshw Res 71:183–189Google Scholar
  25. Davidsen JG, Daverdin M, Arnekleiv JV, Rønning L, Sjursen AD, Koksvik JI (2014a) Riverine and near coastal migration performance of hatchery brown trout Salmo trutta L. J Fish Biol 85:586–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidsen JG, Daverdin M, Sjursen AD, Rønning L, Arnekleiv JV, Koksvik JI (2014b) Does reduced feeding prior to release improve the marine migration of hatchery brown trout Salmo trutta smolts? J Fish Biol 85:1992–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Leeuw JJ, ter Hofstede R, Winter EH (2007) Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). J Sea Res 58:163–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Degerman E, Leonardsson K, Lundqvist H (2012) Coastal migrations, temporary use of neighbouring rivers, and growth of sea trout (Salmo trutta) from nine northern Baltic Sea rivers. ICES J Mar Sci 69:971–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. del Villar-Guerra D, Aarestrup K, Skov C, Koed A (2014) Marine migrations in anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fjord residency as a possible alternative in the continuum of migration to the open sea. Ecol Freshw Fish 23:594–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dieperink C, Pedersen S, Pedersen MI (2001) Estuarine predation on radiotagged wild and domesticated sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) smolts. Ecol Freshw Fish 10:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dieperink C, Bak BD, Pedersen LF, Pedersen MI, Pedersen S (2002) Predation on Atlantic salmon and sea trout during their first days as postsmolts. J Fish Biol 61:848–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Drenner SM, Clark TD, Whitney CK, Martins EG, Cooke SJ, Hinch SG (2012) A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments. PLoS One 7(3):e31311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eldøy SH, Davidsen JG, Thorstad EB, Whoriskey F, Aarestrup K, Næsje TF, Rønning L, Sjursen AD, Rikardsen AH, Arnekleiv JV (2015) Marine migration and habitat use of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 72:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elliott JM (1993a) A 25-year study of production of juvenile sea trout, Salmo trutta, in an English Lake District stream. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 118:109–122Google Scholar
  35. Elliott JM (1993b) The pattern of natural mortality throughout the life cycle in contrasting populations of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Fish Res 17:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Etheridge EC, Harrod C, Bean C, Adams CE (2008) Continuous variation in the pattern of marine v. freshwater foraging in brown trout Salmo trutta L. from Loch Lomond, Scotland. J Fish Biol 73:44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Euzenat G (1999) Sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) in Normandy and Picardy. In: Bagliniere JL, Maisse G (eds) Biology and ecology of the brown trout and sea trout. Springer-Praxis series in Aquaculture and Fisheries, Berlin, pp 175–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fahy E (1978) Variation in some biological characteristics of British sea trout, Salmo trutta L. J Fish Biol 13:123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ferguson A (2006) Genetics of sea trout, with particular reference to Britain and Ireland. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 157–182Google Scholar
  40. Finstad B, Økland F, Thorstad EB, Bjørn PA, McKinley RS (2005) Migration of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon and wild anadromous brown trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. J Fish Biol 66:86–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Finstad B, Bjørn PA, Todd CD, Whoriskey F, Gargan PG, Forde G, Revie C (2011) The effect of sea lice on Atlantic salmon and other salmonid species. In: Aas Ø, Einum S, Klemetsen A, Skurdal J (eds) Atlantic salmon ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 253–276Google Scholar
  42. Gargan PG, Tully O, Poole WR (2003) The relationship between sea lice infestation, sea lice production and sea trout survival in Ireland, 1992-2001. In: Mills D (ed) Salmon at the Edge. Proceedings of the 6th international Atlantic Salmon symposium, Edinburgh, UK, July 2002. Atlantic Salmon Trust/Atlantic Salmon Federation, pp 119–135Google Scholar
  43. Gargan PG, Poole WR, Forde G (2006a) A review of the status of Irish sea trout stocks. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 25–44Google Scholar
  44. Gargan PG, Roche WK, Forde GP, Ferguson A (2006b) Characteristics of the sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) stocks from the Owengowla and Invermore fisheries, Connemara, Western Ireland, and recent trends in marine survival. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 60–75Google Scholar
  45. Gjelland KØ, Serra-Llinares RM, Hedger RD, Arechavala-Lopez P, Nilsen R, Finstad B, Uglem I, Skilbrei OT, Bjørn PA (2014) How does salmon lice affect the marine phase of sea trout behaviour? Aquac Environ Interact 5:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grønvik S, Klemetsen A (1987) Marine food and diet overlap of co-occurring Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Atlantic salmon S. salar L. off Senja, N. Nor Polar Biol 7:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gross MR, Coleman RM, McDowall RM (1988) Aquatic productivity and the evolution of diadromous fish migration. Science 239:1291–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Halttunen E, Jensen JLA, Næsje TF, Davidsen JG, Thorstad EB, Chittenden CM, Hamel S, Primicerio R, Rikardsen AH (2013) State-dependent migratory timing of post-spawned Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 70:1063–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haluch M, Skóra K (1997) Food of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) caught in the Gulf of Gdansk in 1994–1995 (Baltic Sea). Bull Sea Fish Inst 3:55–71Google Scholar
  50. Hansen MM, Ruzzante DE, Nielsen EE, Bekkevold D, Mensberg K-LD (2002) Long-term effective population sizes, temporal stability of genetic composition and potential for local adaptation in anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations. Mol Biol 11:2523–2535Google Scholar
  51. Harris G, Milner N (2006) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  52. Hembre B, Arnekleiv JV, L’Abée-Lund JH (2001) Effects of water discharge and temperature on the seaward migration of anadromous brown trout, Salmo trutta, smolts. Ecol Freshw Fish 10:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hindar K, Jonsson B, Ryman N, Ståhl G (1991) Genetic relationships among landlocked, resident, and anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. Heredity 66:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Høgåsen HR (1998) Physiological changes associated with the diadromous migration of salmonids. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 127:1–128Google Scholar
  55. Hogstrand C, Haux C (1985) Evaluation of the sea-water challenge test on the sea trout, Salmo trutta. Comp Biochem Physiol 82A:261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hovgaard K, Skaala Ø, Nævdal G (2006) Genetic differentiation among sea trout, Salmo trutta L., populations from western Norway. J Appl Ichtyol 22:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. ICES (2013) Report of the workshop on sea trout. ICES CM 2013/SSGEF:15. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  58. Järvi TH (1940) Sea-trout in the Bothnian Bay. Acta Zool Fenn 29:1–29Google Scholar
  59. Järvi T, Holmgren K, Rubin J-F, Petersson E, Lundberg S, Glimsäter C (1996) Newly emerged Salmo trutta fry that migrate to the sea—an alternative choice of feeding habitat? Nord J Freshw Res 72:52–62Google Scholar
  60. Jensen KW (1968) Seatrout (Salmo trutta L.) of the River Istra, western Norway. Rep Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm 48:187–213Google Scholar
  61. Jensen JLA, Rikardsen AH (2008) Do northern riverine anadromous Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and sea trout Salmo trutta overwinter in estuarine and marine waters? J Fish Biol 73:1810–1818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jensen JLA, Rikardsen AH (2012) Archival tags reveal that Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout Salmo trutta can use estuarine and marine waters during winter. J Fish Biol 81:735–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jensen AJ, Finstad B, Fiske P, Hvidsten NA, Rikardsen AH, Saksgård L (2012) Timing of smolt migration in sympatric populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 69:711–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jensen JLA, Rikardsen AH, Thorstad EB, Suhr AH, Davidsen JG, Primicerio R (2014) Water temperatures influence the marine area use of Salvelinus alpinus and Salmo trutta. J Fish Biol 84:1640–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jepsen N, Holthe E, Økland F (2006) Observations of predation on salmon and trout smolts in a river mouth. Fish Man Ecol 13:341–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jobling M (1994) Fish bioenergetics. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (1993) Partial migration—niche shift versus sexual-maturation in fishes. Rev Fish Biol Fish 3:348–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jonsson N, Jonsson B (1998) Body composition and energy allocation in life-history stages of brown trout. J Fish Biol 53:1306–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jonsson N, Jonsson B (2002) Migration of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta in a Norwegian river. Freshw Biol 47:1391–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2006a) Life-history effects of migratory costs in anadromous brown trout. J Fish Biol 69:860–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2006b) Life history of the anadromous trout Salmo trutta. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 196–223Google Scholar
  72. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2009) Migratory timing, marine survival and growth of anadromous trout Salmo trutta in the River Imsa, Norway. J Fish Biol 74:621–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2011) Ecology of Atlantic salmon and brown trout—habitat as a template for life histories. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2014) Naturally and hatchery produced European trout Salmo trutta: do their marine survival and dispersal differ? J Coast Conserv 18:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2015) Sexual size dimorphism in anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. J Fish Biol 87:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jonsson N, Jonsson B, Aass P, Hansen LP (1995) Brown trout Salmo trutta released to support recreational fishing in a Norwegian fjord. J Fish Biol 46:70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jonssson B, L’Abée-Lund JH (1993) Latitudinal clines in life-history variables of anadromous brown trout in Europe. J Fish Biol 43(Supplement A):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jutila E, Saura A, Kallio-Nyberg I, Huhmaarniemi A, Romakkaniemi A (2006) The status and exploitation of sea trout on the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 128–138Google Scholar
  79. Kallio-Nyberg I, Saura A, Ahlfors P (2002) Sea migration pattern of two sea trout (Salmo trutta) stocks released into the Gulf of Finland. Ann Zool Fenn 39:221–235Google Scholar
  80. Kallio-Nyberg I, Jutila E, Jokikokko E, Saloniemi I (2006) Survival of reared Atlantic salmon and sea trout in relation to marine conditions of smolt year in the Baltic Sea. Fish Res 80:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kallio-Nyberg I, Saloniemi I, Jutila E, Saura A (2007) Effects of marine conditions, fishing, and smolt traits on the survival of tagged, hatchery-reared sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) in the Baltic Sea. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64:1183–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kallio-Nyberg I, Saloniemi I, Jutila E (2015) Growth of hatchery-reared sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) on the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. Boreal Env Res 20:19–34Google Scholar
  83. Klemetsen A, Amundsen P-A, Dempson JB, Jonsson B, Jonsson N, O’Connell MF, Mortensen E (2003) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): a review of aspects of their life histories. Ecol Freshw Fish 12:1–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Knutsen JA, Knutsen H, Gjøsæter J, Jonsson B (2001) Food of anadromous brown trout at sea. J Fish Biol 59:533–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Knutsen JA, Knutsen H, Olsen EM, Jonsson B (2004) Marine feeding of anadromous Salmo trutta during winter. J Fish Biol 64:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Koed A, Baktoft H, Bak BD (2006) Causes of mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts in a restored river and its estuary. River Res Appl 22:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Koksvik JI, Steinnes E (2005) Strontium content of scales as a marker for distinguishing between sea trout and brown trout. Hydrobiologia 544:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kristensen EA, Closs GP, Olley R, Kim J, Reid M, Stirling C (2011) Determining the spatial distribution of spawning by anadromous and resident brown trout Salmo trutta L using strontium content of eggs collected from redds. Ecol Freshw Fish 20:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. L’Abée-Lund JH (1994) Effect of smolt age, sex and environmental conditions on sea age at first maturity of anadromous brown trout, Salmo trutta, in Norway. Aquaculture 121:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. L’Abée-Lund JH, Jonsson B, Jensen AJ, Sættem LM, Heggberget TG, Johnsen BO, Næsje TF (1989) Latitudinal variation in life-history characteristics of sea-run migrant brown trout Salmo trutta. J Anim Ecol 58:525–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Landergren P (2001) Survival and growth of sea trout parr in fresh and brackish water. J Fish Biol 58:591–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Landergren P (2004) Factors affecting early migration of sea trout Salmo trutta parr to brackish water. Fish Res 67:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Landergren P, Vallin L (1998) Spawning of sea trout, Salmo trutta L., in brackish waters—lost effort or successful strategy? Fish Res 35:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Larsen PF, Nielsen EE, Koed A, Thomsen DS, Olsvik PA, Loeschcke V (2008) Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). BMG. Genetics 9:12Google Scholar
  95. Larsson S, Serrano I, Eriksson L-O (2012) Effects of muscle lipid concentration on wild and hatchery brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolt migration. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 69:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Limburg KE, Landergren P, Westin L, Elfman M, Kristiansson P (2001) Flexible modes of anadromy in Baltic sea trout: making the most of marginal spawning streams. J Fish Biol 59:682–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lucas M, Baras E (2001) Migration of freshwater fishes. Blackwell Science, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lyse AA, Stefansson SO, Fernö A (1998) Behaviour and diet of sea trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. J Fish Biol 52:923–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lysfjord G, Staurnes M (1998) Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity and hypoosmoregulatory ability of seaward migrating smolts of anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), sea trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Hals river, northern Norway. Aquaculture 168:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Marine Scotland Science (2015) Status of Scottish Salmon and Sea Trout Stocks 2014. Marine Scotland science report 01/15. The Scottish Government. 27 pp. ISBN: 978-1-78544-306-0Google Scholar
  101. McDowall RM, Allibone RM, Chadderton WL (2001) Issues for the conservation and management of Falkland Islands fresh water fishes. Aquat conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 11:473–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Middlemas SJ, Stewart DC, Mackay S, Armstrong JD (2009) Habitat use and dispersal of post-smolt sea trout Salmo trutta in a Scottish sea loch system. J Fish Biol 74:639–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Middlemas SJ, Fryer RJ, Tulett D, Armstrong JD (2013) Relationship between sea lice levels on sea trout and fish farm activity in western Scotland. Fish Manag Ecol 20:68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Milner NJ, Harris GS, Gargan P, Beveridge M, Pawson MG, Walker A, Whelan K (2006) Perspective on sea trout science and management. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 480–490Google Scholar
  105. Moore A, Potter ECE (1994) The movement of wild sea trout, Salmo trutta L., smolts through a river estuary. Fish Manag Ecol 1:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Moore A, Ives M, Scott M, Bamber S (1998) The migratory behaviour of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) smolts in the estuary of the River Conwy, North Wales. Aquaculture 168:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nall GH (1930) Sea trout of the River Tweed. Fish Board Scotl Salmon Fish 5:1–59Google Scholar
  108. Nielsen C, Aarestrup K, Madsen SS (2006) Comparison of physiological smolt status in descending and nondescending wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Danish stream. Ecol Freshw Fish 15:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Farrell MM, Whelan KF, Whelan BJ (1989) A preliminary appraisal of the fecundity of migratory trout (Salmo trutta) in the Erriff catchment, western Ireland. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 36:273–281Google Scholar
  110. Økland F, Jonsson B, Jensen AJ, Hansen LP (1993) Is there a threshold size regulating seaward migration of brown trout and Atlantic salmon? J Fish Biol 42:541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Okmuş I, Kurtoglu IZ, Atasaral Ş (2006) General overview of Turkish sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 115–127Google Scholar
  112. Olsen EM, Knutsen H, Simonsen JH, Jonsson B, Knutsen JA (2006) Seasonal variation in marine growth of sea trout, Salmo trutta, in coastal Skagerrak. Ecol Freshw Fish 15:446–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. O’Neal SL, Stanford JA (2011) Partial migration in a robust brown trout population of a Patagonian river. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:623–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Östergren J, Rivinoja P (2008) Overwintering and downstream migration of sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) kelts under regulated flows—northern Sweden. River Res Appl 24:551–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Parry G (1960) The development of salinity tolerance in the salmon, Salmo salar (L.) and some related species. J Exp Biol 37:425–434Google Scholar
  116. Pemberton R (1976a) Sea trout in North Argyll sea lochs: II. Diet. J Fish Biol 9:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pemberton R (1976b) Sea trout in the North Argyll Sea lochs, population, distribution and movements. J Fish Biol 9:157–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Penston MJ, Davies IM (2009) An assessment of salmon farms and wild salmonids as sources of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) copepodids in the water column in Loch Torridon, Scotland. J Fish Dis 32:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Poole WR, Whelan KF, Dillane MG, Cooke DJ, Matthews M (1996) The performance of sea trout, Salmo trutta L., stocks from the Burrishoole system western Ireland, 1970–1994. Fish Manag Ecol 3:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Poole WR, Dillane M, DeEyto E, Rogan G, McGinnity P, Whelan K (2006) Characteristics of the Burrishoole sea trout population: census, marine survival, enhancement and stock-recruitment relationship, 1971–2003. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 107–114Google Scholar
  121. Pratten DJ, Shearer WM (1983a) Sea trout of the North Esk. Fish Manag 14:49–65Google Scholar
  122. Pratten DJ, Shearer WM (1983b) The migrations of North Esk sea trout. Fish Manag 14:99–113Google Scholar
  123. Rikardsen AH (2004) Seasonal occurrence of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on sea trout in two north Norwegian fjords. J Fish Biol 65:711–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rikardsen AH, Amundsen P-A (2005) Pelagic marine feeding of Arctic charr and sea trout. J Fish Biol 66:1163–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rikardsen AH, Amundsen P-A, Knudsen R, Sandring S (2006) Seasonal marine feeding and body condition of sea trout (Salmo trutta) at its northern distribution. ICES J Mar Sci 63:466–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rikardsen AH, Dempson JB, Amundsen P-A, Bjørn PA, Finstad B, Jensen AJ (2007) Temporal variability in marine feeding of sympatric Arctic charr and sea trout. J Fish Biol 70:837–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schreiber A, Diefenbach G (2005) Population genetics of the European trout (Salmo trutta L.) migration system in the river Rhine: recolonisation by sea trout. Ecol Freshw Fish 14:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sivertsgård R, Thorstad EB, Økland F, Finstad B, Bjørn PA, Jepsen N, Nordal T, McKinley RS (2007) Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts. Hydrobiologia 582:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Skaala Ø, Kålås S, Borgstrøm R (2014a) Evidence of salmon lice-induced mortality of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Hardangerfjord, Norway. Mar Biol Res 10:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Skaala Ø, Johnsen GH, Lo H, Borgstrøm R, Wennevik V, Hansen MM, Merz JE, Glover KA, Barlaup BT (2014b) A conservation plan for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a region with intensive industrial use of aquatic habitats, the Hardangerfjord, western Norway. Mar Biol Res 10:308–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Solomon DJ (2006) Migration as a life-history strategy for the sea trout. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 224–233Google Scholar
  132. Sturlaugsson J, Johannsson M (1996) Migratory pattern of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) in SE-Iceland recorded by data storage tags. ICES C.M. 1996/M:5Google Scholar
  133. Svärdson G, Fagerström Å (1982) Adaptive difference in the long-distance migration of some trout (Salmo trutta L.) stocks. Rep Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm 60:51–80Google Scholar
  134. Tanquy JM, Ombredane D, Baglinière JL, Prunet P (1994) Aspects of parr-smolt transformation in anadromous and resident forms of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in comparison with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 121:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Thorstad EB, Økland F, Finstad B, Sivertsgård R, Bjørn PA, McKinley RS (2004) Migration speeds and orientation of Atlantic salmon and sea trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. Environ Biol Fish 71:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Thorstad EB, Økland F, Finstad B, Sivertsgård R, Plantalech N, Bjørn PA, McKinley RS (2007) Fjord migration and survival of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout post-smolts. Hydrobiologia 582:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Thorstad EB, Whoriskey FG, Rikardsen AH, Aarestrup K (2011) Aquatic nomads: the life and migrations of the Atlantic salmon. In: Aas Ø, Einum S, Klemetsen A, Skurdal J (eds) Atlantic salmon ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  138. Thorstad EB, Whoriskey F, Uglem I, Moore A, Rikardsen AH, Finstad B (2012) A critical life stage of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: behaviour and survival during the smolt and initial post-smolt migration. J Fish Biol 81:500–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Thorstad EB, Todd CD, Bjørn PA, Gargan PG, Vollset KW, Halttunen E, Kålås S, Uglem I, Berg M, Finstad B (2015) Effects of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on wild sea trout Salmo trutta—a literature review. Aquac Environ Interact 7:91–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Titus RG, Mosegaard H (1989) Smolting at age 1 and its adaptive significance for migratory trout, Salmo trutta L., in a small Baltic-coast stream. J Fish Biol 35(Supplement A):351–353Google Scholar
  141. Tully O, Whelan KF (1993) Production of nauplii of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) (Copepoda: Caligidae) from farmed and wild salmon and its relation to the infestation of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) off the west coast of Ireland in 1991. Fish Res 17:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ugedal O, Finstad B, Damsgård B, Mortensen A (1998) Seawater tolerance and downstream migration in hatchery-reared and wild brown trout. Aquaculture 168:395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Went AEJ (1962) Irish sea trout, a review of investigations to date. Sci Proc A R Dublin Soc 10:265–296Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva B. Thorstad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher D. Todd
    • 2
  • Ingebrigt Uglem
    • 1
  • Pål Arne Bjørn
    • 3
  • Patrick G. Gargan
    • 4
  • Knut Wiik Vollset
    • 5
  • Elina Halttunen
    • 3
  • Steinar Kålås
    • 6
  • Marius Berg
    • 1
  • Bengt Finstad
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.University of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK
  3. 3.Institute of Marine ResearchTromsøNorway
  4. 4.Inland Fisheries IrelandDublin 24Ireland
  5. 5.Uni Research EnvironmentBergenNorway
  6. 6.Rådgivende Biologer ASBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations