Marine Biology

, Volume 161, Issue 3, pp 669–680 | Cite as

Spawning migration and returning behavior of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus determined by acoustic telemetry

  • Atsushi Nanami
  • Yuuki Kawabata
  • Taku Sato
  • Tomofumi Yamaguchi
  • Ryo Kawabe
  • Kiyoshi Soyano
Original Paper

Abstract

White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fishery target that forms fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) at specific spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate migration behavior and returning behavior in terms of FSA using acoustic telemetry. Among the 30 specimens tracked, three types of movement pattern were observed: type 1, high site fidelity at the release area before the spawning period, migration to the spawning ground during the spawning period and return to the release area just after the spawning period (17 specimens); type 2, high site fidelity at the release area, disappearance from the area during the spawning period but was not detected at the spawning ground and return to the release area (8 specimens); and type 3, high site fidelity at the release area was observed before, during and after the spawning period (5 specimens). For the 17 specimens that were categorized into type 1, the dates of departure from their release area and the dates of return to the release area of males were, respectively, significantly earlier and later than those of females. The duration between the departure date and the return date (“duration away”) of males was significantly longer than that of females. The duration away tended to be positively related to the condition factor. All 25 specimens that were categorized as type 1 and type 2 showed returning behaviors to the release area.

Supplementary material

227_2013_2369_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1779 kb)
227_2013_2369_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (466 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 465 kb)
227_2013_2369_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (312 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 312 kb)
227_2013_2369_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 1344 kb)

References

  1. Beets J, Friedlander A (1992) Stock analysis and management strategies for red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proc Gulf Caribb Fish Inst 42:66–79Google Scholar
  2. Beets J, Friedlander A (1999) Evaluation of a conservation strategy: a spawning aggregation closure for red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S, Virgin Islands. Environ Biol Fish 55:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Claydon J (2004) Spawning aggregations of coral reef fishes: characteristics, hypotheses, threats and management. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 42:265–302Google Scholar
  4. Coleman FC, Koenig CC, Huntsman GR, Musick JA, Eklund AM, McGovern JC, Chapman RW, Sedberry GR, Grimes CB (2000) Long-lived reef fishes: the grouper-snapper complex. Fisheries 25:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colin PL (2012) Studying and monitoring aggregating species. In: Sadovy Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (eds), Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, Fish and Fisheries Series 35. Springer, 285–329Google Scholar
  6. Colin PL, Sadovy YJ, Domeier ML (2003) Manual for the study and conservation of reef fish spawning aggregations. Society for the conservation of reef fish aggregations, Special publication No. 1 (ver. 1), pp 1–98 + iiiGoogle Scholar
  7. Domeier ML (2012) Revisiting spawning aggregations: definitions and challenges. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (eds), Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, Fish and Fisheries Series 35, Springer, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  8. Domeier ML, Colin PL (1997) Tropical reef fish spawning aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bull Mar Sci 60:698–726Google Scholar
  9. Johannes RE, Squire L, Graham T, Sadovy Y, Renguul H (1999) Spawning aggregations of groupers (Serranidae) in Palau. Marine Conservation Research Series Publ. 1, The Nature Conservancy. 144Google Scholar
  10. Jorgensen C, Ernande B, Fisken O, Dieckmann U (2006) The logic of skipped spawning in fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:200–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kawabata Y, Okuyama J, Asami K, Yoseda K, Arai N (2008) The post-release process of establishing stable home ranges and diel movement patterns of hatchery-reared black-spotted tuskfish Choerodon schoenleinii. J Fish Biol 73:1770–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Levin PS, Grimes CB (2002) Reef fish ecology and grouper conservation and Management. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 377–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loher T, Seitz AC (2008) Characterization of active spawning season and depth for eastern Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and evidence of portable skipped spawning. J Nothw Atl Fish Sci 41:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meyer CG, Holland KN, Papastamatiou YP (2007) Seasonal and diel movements of giant trevally Caranx ignobilis at remote Hawaiian atolls: implications for the design of Marine Protected Area. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nanami A, Sato T, Takebe T, Teruya K, Soyano K (2013a) Microhabitat association in white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: importance of Acropora spp. Mar Biol 160:1511–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nanami A, Sato T, Ohta I, Akita Y, Suzuki N (2013b) Preliminary observations of spawning behavior of white-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) in an Okinawan coral reef. Ichthyol Res 60:380–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nemeth RS (2005) Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nemeth RS (2009) Dynamics of reef fish and decapod crustacean spawning aggregations: underlying mechanisms, habitat linkages, and trophic interactions. In: Nagelkerken I (ed) Ecological connectivity among tropical coastal ecosystems. Springer, New York, pp 73–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nemeth RS, Blondeau J, Herzlieb S, Kadison E (2007) Spatial and temporal patterns of movement and migration at spawning aggregations of red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S, Virgin Islands. Environ Biol Fish 78:365–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohta I (2008) Current Status of Coral Reef Fish Fisheries in the Yaeyama Islands II. Annual Report of Okinawa Prefectural Fisheries and Ocean Research Center 69:95–102 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Ohta I, Ebisawa A (2009) Relationship of forming spawning aggregation of the white-streaked grouper, Epinephelus ongus, with lunar periodicity and water temperature in Yaeyama Islands. Annual Report of Okinawa Prefectural Fisheries and Ocean Research Center 70:28–35 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Ohta I, Nanami A (2009) Distribution of the white-streaked grouper, Epinephelus ongus, in the spawning ground in Yaeyama Islands. Annual Report of Okinawa Prefectural Fisheries and Ocean Research Center 70:36–39 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Rakitin A, Ferguson MM, Trippel EA (1999) Sperm competition and fertilization success in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): effect of sire size and condition factor on gamete quality. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:2315–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Randall JE (1987) A preliminary synopsis of the groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae) of the Indo-Pacific Region. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S (eds) Tropical snapper and groupers: biology and fisheries management. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 89–188Google Scholar
  25. Rhodes KL, Sadovy Y (2002) Temporal and spatial trends in spawning aggregations of camouflage grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) in Pohnpei, Micronesia. Environ Biol Fish 63:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rhodes KL, McIlwain J, Joseph E, Nemeth RS (2012) Reproductive movement, residency and fisheries vulnerability of brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775). Coral Reefs 31:443–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rideout RM, Tomkiewicz J (2011) Skipped spawning in fishes: more common than you might think. Mar Coast Fish 3:176–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robinson J, Aumeeruddy R, Jörgensen TL, Öhman MC (2008) Dynamics of camouflage (Epinephelus polyphekadion) and brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) spawning aggregations at a remote reef site, Seychelles. Bull Mar Sci 83:415–431Google Scholar
  29. Russ GR (1991) Coral reef fisheries: effects and yields. In: Sale PF (ed) The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 601–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Russell MW, Luckhurst BE, Lindeman KC (2012) Management of spawning aggregations. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (eds), Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, Fish and Fisheries Series 35, Springer, pp 371–404Google Scholar
  31. Sadovy Y (1996) Reproduction of reef fishes. In: Polunin NVC, Roberts CM (eds) Reef fisheries. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 15–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (2012) Appendix: species that form spawning aggregations. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management. Fish and Fisheries Series 35, Springer, pp 595–604Google Scholar
  33. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Erisman B (2012) Fishery and biological implications of fishing aggregations, and the social and economic importance of aggregating fishes. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (eds), Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, Fish and Fisheries Series 35, Springer, pp 225–284Google Scholar
  34. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Cornish A, Domeier M, Colin PL, Russell M, Lindeman KC (2008) A global baseline for spawning aggregations of reef fishes. Conserv Biol 22:1233–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Craig MT, Bertoncini AA, Carpenter KE, Cheung WWL, Choat JH, Cornish AS, Fennessy ST, Ferreira BP, Heemstra PC, Liu M, Myers RF, Pollard DA, Rhodes KL, Rocha LA, Russell BC, Samoilys MA, Sanciangco J (2013) Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery. Fish Fish 14:119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sadovy Y, Domeier M (2005) Are aggregation-fisheries sustainable? Reef fish fisheries as a case study. Coral Reefs 24:254–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sala E, Ballesteros E, Starr RM (2001) Rapid decline of Nassau grouper spawning aggregations in Belize: fishery management and conservation needs. Fisheries 26:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Samoilys MA (1997) Periodicity of spawning aggregations of coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Pisces: Serranidae) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 160:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shapiro DY (1987) Reproduction in groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S (eds) Tropical snapper and groupers: biology and fisheries management. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 295–327Google Scholar
  40. Shimizu M, Fujita T, Hiramatsu N, Hara A (1998) Immunochemical detection, estrogen induction and occurrence in serum of vitelline envelope-related proteins of Sakhalin taimen Hucho perryi. Fish Sci 64:600–605Google Scholar
  41. Soyano K, Nakamura M (2006) Lunar-related maturation and spawning migration in honeycomb grouper. In: Yamamoto K, Yamane T, Mitsunaga Y (eds) Aquatic biotelemetry and fishing gear telemetry. Koseisya-Koseikaku, Tokyo, pp 22–30 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  42. Starr RM, Sala E, Ballesteros E, Zabala M (2007) Spatial dynamics of the Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus in a Caribbean atoll. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 343:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zeller DC (1998a) Spawning aggregations: patterns of movement of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) as determined by ultrasonic telemetry. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 162:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zeller DC (1998b) Ultrasonic telemetry: its application to coral reef fisheries research. Fish Bull 97:1058–1069Google Scholar
  45. Zeller DC, Russ G (1998) Marine reserves: patterns of adult movement of the coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae)). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:917–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsushi Nanami
    • 1
  • Yuuki Kawabata
    • 2
  • Taku Sato
    • 1
  • Tomofumi Yamaguchi
    • 2
  • Ryo Kawabe
    • 2
  • Kiyoshi Soyano
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Center of Sub-tropical Fisheries, Seikai National Fisheries Research InstituteFisheries Research AgencyIshigakiJapan
  2. 2.Institute for East China Sea ResearchNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations