Concentration of ascorbic acid and antioxidant response in early life stages of Engraulis ringens and zooplankton during the spawning seasons of 2006–2009 off central Chile
This study reports changes in ascorbic acid (AA) in anchoveta eggs, copepods and zooplankton during the 2006, 2007 and 2009 main spawning seasons in the coastal area of the central Humboldt Current System, Chile. Anchoveta eggs, copepods and total zooplankton community shared a seasonal variation and an increasing trend in AA concentration from winter through spring which was associated with the spring diatom bloom. The lineal relationship observed between AA concentration in anchoveta eggs, chlorophyll a and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) suggests that the increase in phytoplankton abundance could also increase the amount of AA in the spawning female anchoveta incorporated through tissue, thus increasing the concentration in their eggs. Ascorbic acid concentrations in copepods presented size (weight) dependence. Small copepods (e.g. Acartia, Oithona) had AA concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the heavier weight class copepods (e.g. Calanus, Rhincalanus). Results of the determination of glutathione and the antioxidant potential showed a similar trend in interannual variations, suggesting that cold SST conditions observed in the 2007 spawning season could increase the consumption of antioxidants in early stages. Potential connections between AA concentration in the food web on anchoveta reproduction and egg hatching and embryo malformations are discussed.
KeywordsAscorbic Acid Weight Class Ascorbic Acid Concentration Spawning Season Frap Assay
The authors wish to thank to their colleagues at LOPEL for their cooperation in experimental and field work and P. Bustos, I. Muñoz, P. Salgado and K. Toledo for their important support in analytical issues. Financial support was provided by a CONICYT doctoral fellowship to MCK, a CONICYT Thesis Research Grant 24080047; the Graduate School of the Universidad de Concepción, a supplement Thesis Fellowship from FONDAP-COPAS, and the Grants FONDECYT 1070502 and 110534 to LRC and GC. Support for equipment was also obtained from the International Foundation of Science (Grant AA 3643-1 to MCK).
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