Marine Biology

, Volume 159, Issue 2, pp 239–253 | Cite as

Distribution and trophic links of gelatinous zooplankton on Dogger Bank, North Sea

  • Jessica R. Frost
  • Anneke Denda
  • Clive J. Fox
  • Charles A. Jacoby
  • Rolf Koppelmann
  • Morten Holtegaard Nielsen
  • Marsh J. Youngbluth
Original Paper

Abstract

The ecology of small, gelatinous zooplankton is not integrated into management of Dogger Bank (54° 00′ N, 3° 25′ E to 55° 35′ N, 2° 20′ E). In pursuit of this goal, gelatinous zooplankton and their potential prey were sampled along a transect across the bank on June 10–16, 2007. Eleven species of small medusae and ctenophores were collected, with six abundant taxa occurring in greater numbers below the thermocline and in the shallower, southeastern portion of the bank. There were no statistically significant diel changes in distribution. In contrast, potential prey were distributed more evenly across the bank and throughout the water column. Isotopic analyses revealed that gelatinous zooplankton fed on both smaller (100–300 μm) and larger (>300 μm) mesozooplankton, but also potentially on each other. These ecological insights suggest that small medusae and ctenophores should be integrated into sustainable management of Dogger Bank.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks go to the captain and crew of FS Alkor, chief scientist Jens Floeter, and technical assistant Silke Janβen. We thank students Karolin Berg, Franziska Bils, Marco Brunotte, Kerstin Oetting, and Torben Riehl for their invaluable assistance in the field and anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor for their valuable comments. This paper is a contribution to EUR-OCEANS Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission (WP4-SYSMS-1101). J. R. Frost was supported by a EUR-OCEANS fellowship.

Supplementary material

227_2011_1803_MOESM1_ESM.doc (70 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 70 kb)

References

  1. Anderson MJ, Gorley RN, Clarke KR (2008) PERMANOVA + for PRIMER: guide to software and statistical methods. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  2. Arai MN (1976) Behavior of planktonic coelenterates, Sarsia tubulosa, Philiadium gregarium and Pleurobrachia pileus in salinity discontinuity layers. J Fish Res Bd Can 30:1105–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attrill MJ, Wright J, Edwards M (2007) Climate-related increases in jellyfish frequency suggest a more gelatinous future for the North Sea. Limnol Oceanogr 52:480–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Båmstedt U (1998) Trophodynamics of Pleurobrachia pileus (Ctenophora, Cydippida) and ctenophore summer occurrence off the Norwegian North-West coast. Sarsia 83:169–181Google Scholar
  5. Barz K, Hirche HJ (2007) Abundance, distribution and prey composition of scyphomedusae in the southern North Sea. Mar Biol 151:1021–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodeur RD, Sugisaki H, Hunt GL Jr (2002) Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea: implications for the ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brodeur RD, Decker MB, Ciannelli L, Purcell J, Bond NA, Stabeno PJ, Acuna E, Hunt GL Jr (2008) Rise and fall of jellyfish in the eastern Bering Sea in relation to climate regime shifts. Prog Oceanogr 77:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carli A, Pane L, Valente T, Cotta S (1991) Lipid and protein content of jellyfish from the Ligurian Sea: first results. In: United Nations environment programme, jellyfish blooms in the Mediterranean: proceedings of the II workshop on jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Action plan technical report number 47, pp 236–240Google Scholar
  9. Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (2007) Multispecies fisheries management: a comprehensive impact assessment of the sand eel fishery along the English east coast. CEFAS contract report MF0323/02, 83 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Costello JH, Colin SP, Dabiri JO (2008) Medusan morphospace: phylogenetic constraints, biomechanical solutions, and ecological consequences. Invertebr Biol 127:265–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daskalov G (2002) Overfishing drives a trophic cascade in the Black Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 225:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daskalov GM, Mamedov EV (2007) Integrated fisheries assessment and possible causes for the collapse of anchovy kilka in the Caspian Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 64:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daskalov GM, Grishin AN, Rodionov S, Mihneva V (2007) Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:10518–10523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doyle TK, de Haas H, Cotton D, Dorschel B, Cummins V, Houghton JDR, Davenport J, Hays GC (2008) Widespread occurrence of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca in Irish coastal and shelf waters. J Plankton Res 30:963–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esser M, Greve W, Boersma M (2004) Effects of temperature and the presence of benthic predators on the vertical distribution of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. Mar Biol 145:595–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fox CJ, Taylor M, Dickey-Collas M, Fossum P, Kraus G, Rohlf N, Munk P, van Damme CJG, Bolle LJ, Maxwell DL, Wright PJ (2008) Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means. Proc R Soc B 275:1543–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fransz HG, Gonzalez SR (2001) Seasonal and meridional trends in zooplankton diversity of the central North Sea. Senck marit 31:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frost JR, Jacoby CA, Youngbluth MJ (2010) Behavior of Nemopsis bachei L. Agassiz, 1849 medusae in the presence of physical gradients and biological thin layers. Hydrobiologia 645:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gibbons MJ, Richardson AJ (2009) Patterns of jellyfish abundance in the North Atlantic. Hydrobiologia 616:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gibbons MJ, Buecher E, Thibault-Botha D (2003) Observations on the ecology of Pleurobrachia pileus (Ctenophora) in the southern Benguela ecosystem. Afr J mar Sci 25:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Graham WM (2001) Numerical increases and distributional shifts of Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) and Aurelia aurita (Linné) (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 451:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Graham WM, Martin DL, Felder DL, Asper VL, Perry HM (2003) Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biol Invasions 5:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greve W (1971) Ökologische Untersuchungen an Pleurobrachia pileus. 1. Freilanduntersuchungen. Helg Meeres 22:303–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Greve W, Reiners F (1988) Plankton time: space dynamics in German Bight—a systems approach. Oecologia 77:487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gubbay S, Baker CM, Bett BJ (2002) The Darwin Mounds and the Dogger Bank, case studies of the management of two potential Special Areas of Conservation in the offshore environment. WWF-UK, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamer HH, Malzahn AM, Boersma M (2011) The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: a threat to fish recruitment in the North Sea? J Plankton Res 33:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hansen KV (1951) On the diurnal migration of zooplankton in relation to the discontinuity layer. J Conseil 17:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hay SJ, Hislop JRG, Shanks AM (1990) North Sea scyphomedusae; summer distribution, estimated biomass and significance particularly for 0-group gadoid fish. Neth J Sea Res 25:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hobson KA, Welch HE (1992) Determination of trophic relationships within a high Arctic marine food web using d13C and d15N analysis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 84:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holligan PM, Williams PJL, Purdie D, Harris RP (1984) Photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen supply of plankton populations in stratified, frontal and tidally mixed shelf waters. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 17:201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacobsen HP, Norrbin MF (2009) Fine-scale layer of hydromedusae is revealed by video plankton recorder (VPR) in a semi-enclosed bay in northern Norway. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 380:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jak RG, Bos OG, Witbaard R, Lindeboom HJ (2009) Conservation targets Natura 2000 North Sea sites. Report no. C065/09, Wageningen Imares, IjmuidenGoogle Scholar
  33. Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2008) Offshore special area of conservation: Dogger Bank. JNCC, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  34. Kideys AE, Romanova Z (2001) Distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton in the southern Black Sea during 1996–1999. Mar Biol 139:535–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koski M, Jónasdóttir SH, Bagøien E (2011) Biological processes in the North Sea: vertical distribution and reproduction of neretic copepods in relation to environmental factors. J Plankton Res 33:63–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krause M, Fock H, Greve W, Winkler G (2003) North Sea zooplankton: a review. Senck marit 33:71–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kröncke I, Knust R (1995) The Dogger Bank: a special ecological region in the central North Sea. Helg Meeres 49:335–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lucas CH (1994) Biochemical composition of Aurelia aurita in relation to age and sexual maturity. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 183:179–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lynam CP, Hay SJ, Brierley AS (2004) Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Limnol Oceanogr 49:637–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lynam CP, Hay SJ, Brierley AS (2005a) Jellyfish abundance and climatic variation: contrasting responses in oceanographically distinct regions of the North Sea, and possible implications for fisheries. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:435–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lynam CP, Heath MR, Hay SJ, Brierley AS (2005b) Evidence for impacts by jellyfish on North Sea herring recruitment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 298:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lynam CP, Gibbons MJ, Axelsen BE, Sparks CAJ, Coetzee J, Heywood BG, Brierley AS (2006) Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Current Biol 16:R492–R493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lynam CP, Attrill MJ, Skogen MD (2010) Climatic and oceanic influences on the abundance of gelatinous zooplankton in the North Sea. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 90:1153–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Malej A, Faganeli J, Pezdič J (1993) Stable isotope and biochemical fractionation in the marine pelagic food chain: the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca and net zooplankton. Mar Biol 116:565–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mills CE (1995) Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores as planktivorous predators in changing global ecosystems. ICES J Mar Sci 52:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Minagawa M, Wada E (1984) Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: further evidence and the relation between δ15N and animal age. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:1135–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Munk P, Fox CJ, Bolle LJ, van Damme CJG, Fossum P, Kraus G (2009) Spawning of North Sea fishes linked to hydrographic features. Fish Oceanogr 18:458–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mutlu E, Bingel F (1999) Distribution and abundance of ctenophores, and their zooplankton food in the Black Sea. I. Pleurobrachia pileus. Mar Biol 135:589–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nicholas KR, Frid CLJ (1989) Occurrence of hydromedusae in the plankton off Northumberland (western central North Sea) and the role of planktonic predators. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:979–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pagès F, Gili J-M (1992) Influence of the thermocline on the vertical migration of medusae during a 48 hr sampling period. S Afr J Zool 27:50–59Google Scholar
  51. Phillips DL, Gregg JW (2003) Source partitioning using stable isotopes: coping with too many sources. Oecologia 136:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pitt KA, Connolly RM, Meziane T (2009) Stable isotope and fatty acid tracers in energy and nutrient studies of jellyfish: a review. Hydrobiologia 616:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Purcell JE (1991) A review of cnidarians and ctenophores feeding on competitors in the plankton. Hydrobiologia 216(217):335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Purcell JE (1997) Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores as predators: selective predation, feeding rates, and effects on prey populations. Ann Inst Oceanogr Paris 73:125–137Google Scholar
  55. Purcell JE, Arai MN (2001) Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review. Hydrobiologia 451:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Purcell JE, Mills CE (1988) The correlation between nematocyst types and diets in pelagic Hydrozoa. In: Hessinger DA, Lenhoff HM (eds) The biology of nematocysts. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 463–485Google Scholar
  57. Purcell JE, Nemazie DA (1992) Quantitative feeding ecology of the hydromedusan Nemopsis bachei in Chesapeake Bay. Mar Biol 113:305–311Google Scholar
  58. Quality Status Reports (1987) Quality status report of the North Sea. Scientific and technical working group. Section international conference on the protection of the North Sea, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. Quality Status Reports (1993) North sea quality status report 1993. North Sea Task Force NSTF. Olsen & Olsen, FredensborgGoogle Scholar
  60. Quality Status Reports (2000a) Quality status report 2000, region II, greater North Sea. OSPAR Commission, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. Quality Status Reports (2000b) Quality status report 2000. OSPAR Commission, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Quality Status Reports (2010) Quality status report 2010. OSPAR Commission, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Reid PC, Edwards M (2001) Long-term changes in the pelagos, benthos and fisheries of the North Sea. Senck marit 31:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reid PC, Lancelot C, Gieskes WWC, Hagmeier E, Weichart G (1990) Phytoplankton of the North Sea and its dynamics: a review. Neth J Sea Res 26:295–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Reiss H, Wieking G, Kröncke I (2007) Microphytobenthos of the Dogger Bank: a comparison between shallow and deep areas using phytopigment composition of the sediment. Mar Biol 150:1061–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Richardson AJ, Bakun A, Hays GC, Gibbons MJ (2009) The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future. Trends Ecol Evol 24:312–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rolff C (2000) Seasonal variation in δ13C and δ15N of size-fractionated plankton at a coastal station in the northern Baltic proper. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 203:47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Russell FS (1953) The Medusae of the British Isles, vol I Anthomedusae, Leptomedusae, Limnomedusae, Trachymedusae and Narcomedusae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. Smyntek PM, Teece MA, Schulz KL, Thackeray SJ (2007) A standard protocol for stable isotope analysis of zooplankton in aquatic food web research using mass balance correction models. Limnol Oceanogr 52:2135–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Southward AJ, Barrett RL (1983) Observations on the vertical distribution of zooplankton, including post-larval teleosts, off Plymouth in the presence of a thermocline and a chlorophyll-dense layer. J Plankton Res 5:599–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stone R (2005) Science in Iran—attack of the killer jellies. Science 309:1805–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Utne-Palm AC, Salvanes AGV, Currie B, Kaartvedt S, Nilsson GE, Braithwaite VA, Stecyk JAW, Hundt M, van der Bank M, Flynn B, Sandvik GK, Klevjer TA, Sweetman AK, Brüchert V, Pittman K, Peard KR, Lunde IG, Strandabø RAU, Gibbons MJ (2010) Trophic structure and community stability in an overfished ecosystem. Science 329:333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Uye S-i (2008) Blooms of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai: a threat to the fisheries sustainability of the East Asian Marginal Seas. Plankton Benthos Res 3:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weston K, Fernand L, Mills DK, Delahunty R, Brown J (2005) Primary production in the deep chlorophyll maximum of the central North Sea. J Plankton Res 27:909–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Williams R, Collins NR (1985) Chaetognaths and ctenophores in the holoplankton of the Bristol Channel. Mar Biol 85:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Youngbluth MJ, Båmstedt U (2001) Distribution, abundance, behavior and metabolism of Periphylla periphylla, a mesopelagic coronate medusa in a Norwegian fjord. Hydrobiologia 451:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica R. Frost
    • 1
  • Anneke Denda
    • 1
  • Clive J. Fox
    • 2
  • Charles A. Jacoby
    • 3
  • Rolf Koppelmann
    • 1
  • Morten Holtegaard Nielsen
    • 1
    • 5
  • Marsh J. Youngbluth
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries ScienceUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Scottish Association for Marine ScienceOban, ArgyllUK
  3. 3.Soil and Water Science DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Harbor Branch Oceanographic InstituteFlorida Atlantic UniversityFort PierceUSA
  5. 5.Technical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations