Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 158, Issue 11, pp 2577–2587 | Cite as

Different growth rates between loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) of Mediterranean and Atlantic origin in the Mediterranean Sea

  • Susanna PiovanoEmail author
  • Marcel Clusa
  • Carlos Carreras
  • Cristina Giacoma
  • Marta Pascual
  • Luis Cardona
Original Paper

Abstract

We estimated for the first time the growth rates of loggerhead sea turtles of Mediterranean and of Atlantic origin found in the Mediterranean Sea, combining both skeletochronological and genetic analyses. Our growth models suggested that the growth rate of loggerhead sea turtles of Mediterranean origin was faster than that of their conspecifics with an Atlantic origin exploiting the feeding grounds in the Mediterranean Sea. The age at maturity for Mediterranean origin loggerhead sea turtles, estimated using our best fitting model, was 24 years, which suggests that loggerhead sea turtles nesting in the Mediterranean are not only smaller than those nesting in the western North Atlantic but also younger.

Keywords

Carapace Length Nest Beach Mediterranean Origin Atlantic Origin Curve Carapace Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

For providing samples, we thank the Tartanet network of rescue centres, in particular Marco Affronte (Fondazione Cetacea), Giovanni Furii (Sea Turtles Rescue Centre Legambiente Oasi di Lago Salso), Gepi Ollano (Cetacean and Sea Turtles Rescue Centre Laguna di Nora), Laura Pireddu (Sea Turtles Rescue Centre CTS Asinara) and Annalisa Liotta (Sea Turtles Rescue Centre CTS Brancaleone). We thank Olimpia Lai (Università di Bari) and Dino Scaravelli (Università di Bologna) for providing additional samples. We thank Giusy Nicolini (Riserva Naturale Orientata “Isola di Lampedusa”) and Paola Chesi (Sea Turtles Rescue Center CTS Brancaleone) for providing two dead-in-nest hatchlings each. We thank Fabio M. Guarino and George R. Zug for providing assistance in bone preparation and interpretation of growth layers. We are grateful to Riccardo Comoli (RC) for his assistance in LAGs counting. Valuable comments on earlier versions of this manuscript were provided by Melissa L. Snover. The petrographic cutter was made available by Mario Fornaro (Università di Torino, Dip. di Scienze della Terra), the freezing-stage microtome by Maria F. Franzoni (Università di Torino, Dip. di Biologia Animale). This research was partially financed by project CGL2009-10017 (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain).

References

  1. Abreu-Grobois A, Horrocks J, Formia A, Dutton P, LeRoux R, Velez-Zuazo X, Soares L, Meylan P (2006) New mtDNA dloop primers which work for a variety of marine turtle species may increase the resolution capacity of mixed stock analysis. In: Frick M, Panagopoulou A, Rees AF, Williams K (eds) Book of abstracts 26th annual symposium on sea turtle biology and conservation. International Sea Turtle Society, Athens, Greece, p 179Google Scholar
  2. Avens L, Goshe LR (2007) Comparative skeletochronological analysis of Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) humeri and scleral ossicles. Mar Biol 152:1309–1317. doi: 10.1007/s00227-007-0779-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avens L, Taylor C, Goshe L, Jones TT, Hastings M (2009) Use of skeletochronological analysis to estimate the age of leatherback sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea in the western North Atlantic. Endang Species Res 8:165–177. doi: 10.3354/esr00202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bjorndal KA, Zug G (1995) Growth and age of sea turtle. In: Bjorndal KA (ed) Biology and conservation of sea turtles, rev edn. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, pp 599–600Google Scholar
  5. Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Bennett RA, Jacobson ER, Wronski TJ, Valeski JJ, Eliazar PJ (1998) Age and growth in sea turtles: limitations of skeletochronology for demographic studies. Copeia 1:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjorndal KA, Bolten A, Martins HR (2000) Somatic growth model of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta: duration of pelagic stage. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 202:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Koike B, Schroeder BA, Shaver DJ, Teas WG, Witzell WN (2001) Somatic growth function for immature loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in southeastern US waters. Fish Bull 99:240–246Google Scholar
  8. Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Dellinger T, Delgado C, Martins HR (2003) Compensatory growth in oceanic loggerhead sea turtles: response to a stochastic environment. Ecology 84:1237–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolten AB (1999) Techniques for measuring sea turtles. In: Eckert KL, Bjorndal KA, Abreu-Grobois FA, Donnelly M (eds) Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication 4, pp 110–114Google Scholar
  10. Bolten AB, Balazs GH (1995) Biology of the early pelagic stage—the “lost year”. In: Bjorndal KA (ed) Biology and conservation of sea turtles, rev edn. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, pp 579–581Google Scholar
  11. Bolten AB, Bjorndal K, Martins HR, Dellinger T, Boscoito MJ, Encalada SE, Bowen BW (1998) Transatlantic developmental migrations of loggerhead sea turtles demonstrated by mtDNA sequence analysis. Ecol Appl 8:1–7. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0001:TDMOLS]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosc E, Bricaud A, Antoine D (2004) Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations. Global Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB1006. doi: 10.1029/2003GB002034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braun-McNeill J, Epperly SP, Avens L, Snover ML, Taylor JC (2008) Growth rates of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from the western north Atlantic. Herpetol Conserv Biol 3:273–281Google Scholar
  14. Cardona L, Revelles M, Carreras C, Sanfélix M, Gazo M, Aguilar A (2005) Western Mediterranean immature loggerhead turtles: habitat use in spring and summer assessed through satellite tracking and aerial surveys. Mar Biol 147:583–591. doi: 10.1007/s00227-005-1578-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cardona L, Revelles M, Parga ML, Tomás J, Aquilar A, Alegre F, Raga A, Ferrer X (2009) Habitat use by loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta off the coast of eastern Spain results in a high vulnerability to neritic fishing gear. Mar Biol 156:2621–2630. doi: 10.1007/s00227-009-1288-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr A (1987) New perspective on the pelagic stage of sea turtle development. Conserv Biol 1:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carreras C, Pont S, Maffucci F, Pascual M, Barceló A, Bentivegna F, Cardona L, Alegre F, Sanfélix M, Fernández G, Aguilar A (2006) Genetic structuring of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea reflects water circulation patterns. Mar Biol 149:1269–1279. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0282-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carreras C, Pascual M, Cardona L, Aguilar A, Margaritoulis D, Rees A, Turkozan O, Levy Y, Gasith A, Aureggi M, Khalil M (2007) The genetic structure of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean as revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and its conservation implications. Conserv Genet 8:761–775. doi: 10.1007/s10592-006-9224-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carreras C, Pascual M, Cardona L, Marco A, Bellido JJ, Castillo JJ, Tomás J, Raga JA, Sanfélix M, Fernández G, Aguilar A (in press) Living together apart: Atlantic and Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in shared feeding grounds. J HeredGoogle Scholar
  20. Casale P, Abbate G, Freggi D, Conte N, Oliverio M, Argano R (2008a) Foraging ecology of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta in the central Mediterranean Sea: evidence for a relaxed life history model. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 372:265–276. doi: 10.3354/meps07702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Casale P, Freggi D, Gratton P, Argano R, Oliverio M (2008b) Mitochondrial DNA reveals regional and interregional importance of the central Mediterranean African shelf for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Sci Mar 72:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casale P, d’Astore PP, Argano R (2009a) Age at size and growth rates of early juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean based on length frequency analysis. Herpetol J 19:29–33Google Scholar
  23. Casale P, Mazaris AD, Freggi D, Vallini C, Argano R (2009b) Growth rates and age at adult size of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea, estimated through capture-mark-recapture records. Sci Mar 73:589–595. doi: 10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casale P, Conte N, Freggi D, Cioni C, Argano R (2011a) Age and growth determination by skeletochronology in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from the Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 75:197–203. doi: 10.3989/scimar.2011.75n1197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Casale P, Mazaris AD, Freggi D (2011b) Estimation of age at maturity of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta in the Mediterranean using length-frequency data. Endang Species Res 13:123–129. doi: 10.3354/esr00319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castanet J (1985) La squelettochronologie chez les Reptiles. I. Résultats expérimentaux sur la signification des marques de croissance squelettiques chez les Lézards et les Tortues. Ann Sci Nat Zool (Paris) 7:23–40Google Scholar
  27. Castanet J, Smirina E (1990) Introduction to the skeletochronological method in amphibians and reptiles. Ann Sci Nat Zool (Paris) 11:191–196Google Scholar
  28. Coles WC, Musick JA, Williamson LA (2001) Skeletochronology validation from an adult loggerhead (Caretta caretta). Copeia 1:240–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crouse DT, Crowder LB, Caswell H (1987) A stage-based population model for loggerhead sea turtles and implications for conservation. Ecology 68:1412–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crowder LB, Crouse DT, Heppell SS, Martin TM (1994) Predicting the impact of turtle excluder devices on loggerhead sea turtle populations. Ecol Appl 4:437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Curtin AJ, Zug GR, Medica PA, Spotila JR (2008) Assessing age in the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii: testing skeletochronology with individuals of known age. Endang Species Res 5:21–27. doi: 10.3354/esr00108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Curtin AJ, Zug GR, Spotila JR (2009) Longevity and growth strategies of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in two American deserts. J Arid Env 73:463–471. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dodd Jr CK (1988) Synopsis of the biological data on the loggerhead sea turtle. US Fish Wildl Serv Biol Rep 88:1–110Google Scholar
  34. Eckert SA, Moore JE, Dunn DC, Sagarminaga van Buiten R, Eckert KL, Halpin PN (2008) Modeling loggerhead turtle movement in the Mediterranean: importance of body size and oceanography. Ecol Appl 18:290–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ehret DJ (2007) Skeletochronology, a method for determining the individual age and growth of modern and fossil tortoises (Reptilia Testudines). Bull Florida Museum Nat Hist 47:49–72Google Scholar
  36. Ehrhart LM, Yoder RG (1978) Marine turtles of Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Fla Mar Res Publ 33:25–30Google Scholar
  37. Encalada SE, Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Zurita JC, Schroeder B, Possardt E, Sears CJ, Bowen BW (1998) Population structure of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting colonies in the Atlantic and Mediterranean as inferred from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Mar Biol 130:567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Enlow DH (1969) The bone of reptiles. In: Gans C, d’A Bellairs A, Parsons TS (eds) Biology of the Reptilia: morphology A. Academic Press, London and New York, pp 45–80Google Scholar
  39. Fabens AJ (1965) Properties and fitting of the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Growth 29:265–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fitzsimmons NN, Moritz C, Moore SS (1995) Conservation and dynamics of microsatellite loci over 300 million years of marine turtle evolution. Mol Biol Evol 12:432–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. FitzSimmons NN, Moritz C, Limpus CJ, Miller JD, Parmenter CJ, Prince R (1996) Comparative genetic structure of green, loggerhead, and flatback populations in Australia based on variable mtDNA and nDNA regions. In: Bowen BW, Witzell WN (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on sea turtle conservation genetics. NOAA Tech Mem NMFS-SEFSC, vol 396, pp 25–32Google Scholar
  42. Francis R (1990) Back-calculation of fish length: a critical review. J Fish Biol 36:883–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frazer NB, Ehrhart LM (1985) Preliminary growth models for green, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead, Caretta caretta, turtles in the wild. Copeia 1:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garofalo L, Mingozzi T, Micò A, Novelletto A (2009) Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) matrilines in the Mediterranean: further evidence of genetic diversity and connectivity. Mar Biol 156:2085–2095. doi: 10.1007/s00227-009-1239-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goshe LR, Avens L, Bybee J, Hohn AA (2009) An evaluation of histological techniques used in skeletochronological age estimation of sea turtles. Chelon Conserv Biol 8:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goshe LR, Avens L, Scharf FS, Southwood AL (2010) Estimation of age at maturation and growth of Atlantic green turtles (Chelonia mydas) using skeletochronology. Mar Biol 157:1725–1740. doi: 10.1007/s00227-010-1446-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Guarino FM, Angelini F, Cammarota M (1995) A skeletochronological analysis in three syntopic species of southern Italy. Amphibia-Reptilia 16:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guarino FM, Di Maio A, Caputo V (2004) Age estimation by phalangeal skeletochronology of Caretta caretta from the Mediterranean Sea. Ital J Zool 2(Suppl):175–179. doi: 10.1080/11250000409356630 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acid Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  50. Heppell SS, Crowder LB, Crouse DT, Epperly SP, Frazer NB (2003) Population models for Atlantic loggerheads: past, present, and future. In: Bolten AB, Witherington B (eds) Loggerhead sea turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp 255–273Google Scholar
  51. IUCN (2010) Red list of threatened species. Version 2010.4. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 10 Mar 2011
  52. Klinger RC, Musick JA (1992) Annular growth layers in juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta). Bull Mar Sci 51:224–230Google Scholar
  53. Klinger RC, Musick JA (1995) Age and growth of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Chesapeake Bay. Copeia 1:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kolarov T, Ljubisavljević K, Polović L, Džukić G, Kalezić ML (2010) The body size, age structure and growth pattern of the endemic Balkan Mosor rock lizard (Dinarolacerta mosorensis kolombatović, 1886). Acta zool hung 56:55–71Google Scholar
  55. Laurent L, Casale P, Bradai MN, Godley BJ, Gerosa G, Broderick AC, Schroth W, Schierwater B, Levy AM, Freggi D, Abd El-Mawla EM, Hadoud DA, Gomati HE, Domingo M, Hadjichristophorous M, Kornaraki L, Demirayak F, Gautier C (1998) Molecular resolution of marine turtle stock composition in fishery bycatch: a case study in the Mediterranean. Mol Ecol 7:1529–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leclair Jr R, Castanet J (1987) A skeletochronological assessment of age and growth in the frog Rana pipiens Schreber (Amphibia, Anura) from Southwestern Quebec. Copeia 2:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lewison RL, Freeman SA, Crowder LB (2004) Quantifying the effects of fisheries on threatened species: the impact of pelagic longlines on loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles. Ecol Lett 7:221–231. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00573.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Longhurst A (1998) Ecological geography of the sea. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  59. Margaritoulis D, Argano R, Baran I, Bentivegna F, Bradai MN, Caminas JA, Casale P, De Metrio G, Demetropoulos A, Gerosa G, Godley B, Houghton J, Laurent L, Lazar B (2003) Loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: present knowledge and conservation perspectives. In: Bolten AB, Witherington B (eds) Loggerhead sea turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp 175–198Google Scholar
  60. Mendonca MT (1981) Comparative growth rates of wild immature Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta in Florida. J Herpetol 15:447–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mingozzi T, Masciari G, Paolillo G, Pisani B, Russo M, Massolo A (2007) Discovery of a regular nesting area of loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta in southern Italy: a new perspective for national conservation. Biodivers Conserv 16:3519–3541. doi: 10.1007/s10531-006-9098-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Monzón-Argüello C, Rico C, Naro-Maciel E, Varo-Cruz N, López P, Marco A, López-Jurado LF (2010) Population structure and conservation implications for the loggerhead sea turtle of the Cape Verde Islands. Conserv Genet 11:1871–1884. doi: 10.1007/s10592-010-0079-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moore MK, Ball RM (2002) Multiple paternity in loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nests on Melbourne Beach, Florida: a microsatellite analysis. Mol Ecol 11:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Parham JF, Zug GR (1997) Age and growth of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) of coastal Georgia: an assessment of skeletochronological age-estimates. Bull Mar Sci 61:287–304Google Scholar
  65. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Ramsey FL, Schafer DW (2002) The statistical sleuth: a course in methods of data analysis, 2nd edn. Duxbury, Pacific GroveGoogle Scholar
  67. R-Development Core Team (2010) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org. Downloaded 21 Jan 2011
  68. Revelles M, Cardona L, Aguilar A, Sanfélix M, Fernández G (2007a) Habitat use by immature loggerhead sea turtles in the Algerian Basin (western Mediterranean): swimming behaviour, seasonality and dispersal pattern. Mar Biol 151:1501–1515. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0602-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Revelles M, Carreras C, Cardona L, Marco A, Bentivegna F, Castillo JJ, de Martino G, Mons JL, Smith MB, Rico C, Pascual M, Aquilar A (2007b) Evidence for an asymmetrical size exchange of loggerhead sea turtles between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic through the Straits of Gibraltar. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 349:261–271. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.05.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Seglie D, Roy D, Giacoma C (2010) Sexual dimorphism and age structure in a population of Tylototriton verrucosus (Amphibia: Salamandridae) from the Himalayan Region. Copeia 4:600–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shaver DJ (1994) Relative abundance, temporal patterns, and growth of sea turtles at the Mansfield Channel, Texas. J Herpetol 28:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Snover ML (2002) Growth and ontogeny of sea turtles using skeletochronology: methods, validation, and application to conservation. PhD Dissertation, Duke University, USAGoogle Scholar
  73. Snover ML, Hohn AA (2004) Validation and interpretation of annual skeletal marks in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles. Fish Bull 102:682–692Google Scholar
  74. Snover ML, Avens L, Hohn AA (2007a) Back-calculating length from skeletal growth marks in loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta. Endanger Species Res 3:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Snover ML, Hohn AA, Crowder LB, Heppell SS (2007b) Age and growth in Kemp’s ridley sea turtles. In: Plotkin PT (ed) Biology and conservation of ridley sea turtles. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 89–105Google Scholar
  76. Snover ML, Hohn AA, Crowder LB, Macko SA (2010) Combining stable isotopes and skeletal growth marks to detect habitat shifts in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta. Endang Species Res 13:25–31. doi: 10.3354/esr00311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tiwari M, Bjorndal KA (2000) Variation in morphology and reproduction in loggerheads, Caretta caretta, nesting in the United States, Brazil, and Greece. Herpetologica 56:343–356Google Scholar
  78. Turtle Expert Working Group (2009) An assessment of the loggerhead turtle population in the western north Atlantic Ocean. NOAA Tech Mem NMFS-SEFSC 575:1–131Google Scholar
  79. Wallace BP, Heppell SS, Lewison RL, Kelez S, Crowder LB (2008) Impacts of fisheries bycatch on loggerhead turtles worldwide inferred from reproductive value analyses. J Appl Ecol 45:1076–1085. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01507.x Google Scholar
  80. Zug GR, Glor RE (1998) Estimates of age and growth in a population of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Indian River lagoon system, Florida: a skeletochronological analysis. Can J Zool 76:1497–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zug GR, Parham JF (1996) Age and growth in leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelydae): a skeletochronological analysis. Chelonian Conserv Biol 2:244–249Google Scholar
  82. Zug GR, Wynn AH, Ruckdeschel C (1986) Age determination of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, by incremental growth marks in the skeleton. Smithsonian Inst Contrib Zool 427:1–34Google Scholar
  83. Zug GR, Balazs GH, Wetherall JA (1995) Growth in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the north Pacific pelagic habitat. Copeia 2:484–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zug GR, Kalb HJ, Luzar SJ (1997) Age and growth in wild Kemp’s ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii from skeletochronological data. Biol Conserv 80:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zug GR, Balazs GH, Wetherall JA, Parker DM, Murakawa SKK (2002) Age and growth of Hawaiian green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): an analysis based on skeletochronology. Fish Bull 100:117–127Google Scholar
  86. Zug GR, Chaloupka M, Balazs GH (2006) Age and growth in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) from the North-central Pacific: a skeletochronological analysis. Mar Ecol 27:263–270. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2006.00109.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Piovano
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcel Clusa
    • 2
  • Carlos Carreras
    • 2
  • Cristina Giacoma
    • 1
  • Marta Pascual
    • 3
  • Luis Cardona
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’UomoUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.Department of Animal Biology and IrBio, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and IrBio, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations