Marine Biology

, Volume 158, Issue 10, pp 2359–2376 | Cite as

Winter studies on zooplankton in Arctic seas: the Storfjord (Svalbard) and adjacent ice-covered Barents Sea

  • H. J. HircheEmail author
  • K. N. Kosobokova
Original Paper


Zooplankton was sampled in the Storfjord and ice-covered Barents Sea during March 2003. Environmental conditions represented a typical winter situation with low air temperatures, close pack ice, and extremely low chlorophyll concentrations. Polar water dominated the hydrographic regime in the upper layers. Zooplankton distribution reflected spatial variability of hydrography. The copepods Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis, Microsetella norvegica together with gastropod larvae were most numerous. Biomass averaged for the entire water column varied from 3.3 to 14.3 mg dry mass m−3, Calanus glacialis and Parasagitta elegans contributed most, followed by C. finmarchicus, Oithona similis, and Pseudocalanus spp. Various holoplankters showed reproductive activity, especially cyclopoid copepods and chaetognaths. A few C. glacialis females laid eggs in situ, but when fed diatom cultures rapidly increased their egg production. Meroplankton including larvae of nudibranchia, bivalvia, ophiuroida, polychaeta, and bryozoa were also present. Our data demonstrate that the pelagic community of the seasonally ice-covered Barents Sea was not in a “sleeping” state at the end of the winter, but in addition to dormant stages, a portion of mainly omnivorous and several carnivorous species was reproducing.


Atlantic Water Copepodite Stage Calanus Hyperboreus Gastropod Larva Meroplanktonic Larva 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank the captain and the crew of RV “Polarstern” for assistance in sampling. I. Fetzer, H. Auel, and B. Niehoff helped with the multinet sampling, P. May assisted in experiments. U. Schauer and A. Wisotzky provided CTD data, and U. Schauer helped with interpretation of the hydrography.


  1. Abramova EN, Tuschling K (2005) A 12-year study of the seasonal and interannual dynamics of mesozooplankton in the Laptev Sea: significance of salinity regime and life cycle patterns. Global Planet Change 48:141–164Google Scholar
  2. Arashkevich E, Wassmann P, Pasternak A, Riser CW (2002) Seasonal and spatial changes in biomass, structure, and development progress of the zooplankton community in the Barents Sea. J Mar Syst 38:125–145Google Scholar
  3. Ashjian CJ, Campbell RG, Welch HE, Butler M, Van Keuren D (2003) Annual cycle in abundance, distribution, and size in relation to hydrography of important copepod species in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep Sea Res I 50:1235–1261Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson A (1996) Subantarctic copepods in an oceanic, low chlorophyll environment: ciliate predation, food selectivity and impact on prey populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 130:85–96Google Scholar
  5. Auel H, Hagen W (2002) Mesozooplankton community structure, abundance and biomass in the central Arctic Ocean. Mar Biol 140:1013–1021Google Scholar
  6. Båmstedt U, Ervik A (1984) Local variations in size and activity among Calanus finmarchicus and Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida) overwintering on the west coast of Norway. J Plankton Res 6:843–857Google Scholar
  7. Båmstedt U, Tande KS (1988) Physiological responses of Calanus finmarchicus and Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida) during the winter spring transition. Mar Biol 99:31–38Google Scholar
  8. Blachowiak-Samolyk K (2008) Contrasting zooplankton communities (Arctic vs. Atlantic) in the European Arctic marginal ice zone. Oceanologia 50:363–389Google Scholar
  9. Carmack E, Barber DG, Christensen JR, Macdonald RW, Rudels B, Sakshaug E (2005) Climate variability and physical forcing of the food webs and the carbon budget on panarctic shelves. Prog Oceanogr 71:145–181Google Scholar
  10. Castellani C, Irigoien X, Harris RP, Lampitt RS (2005) Feeding and egg production of Oithona similis in the North Atlantic. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 288:173–182Google Scholar
  11. Chislenko LL (1968) Nomogramms for determining the weight of aquatic organisms according to the size and shape of their body, marine mesobenthos and plankton. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Chislenko LL (1972) Species composition and distribution of zooplankton ecological groups in the Yenisei Bay. Issledovanija fauny morei 12(20):228–238 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  13. Comiso JC, Parkinson CL, Gersten R, Stock L (2008) Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 35:L01703Google Scholar
  14. Conover RJ, Huntley M (1991) Zooplankton and sea ice—distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas. J Mar Syst 2:1–41Google Scholar
  15. Conover RJ, Siferd TD (1993) Dark-season survival strategies of coastal zooplankton in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 46:303–311Google Scholar
  16. Conover RJ, Herman AW, Prinsenberg SJ, Harris LR (1986) Distribution of and feeding by the copepod Pseudocalanus under fast ice during the Arctic spring. Science 232:1245–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Corkett CJ, McLaren IA (1978) ) The biology of Pseudocalanus. Adv Mar Biol 15:1–563Google Scholar
  18. Corkett CJ, McLaren IA, Sevigny JM (1986) The rearing of the marine calanoid copepods Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus), C. glacialis (Jaschnov) and C. hyperboreus (Kr.yer) with comment on the equiproportional rule (Copepoda). In: Schriever G, Schminke HK, Shih CT (eds) Proc 2nd international conference Copepoda. Syllogeus, vol 58, pp 539–546Google Scholar
  19. Daase M, Eiane K (2007) Mesozooplankton distribution in northern Svalbard waters in relation to hydrography. Pol Biol 30:969–981Google Scholar
  20. Daase M, Søreide JE, Martynova D (2011) Effects of food quality on naupliar development in Calanus glacialis at subzero temperatures. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 429:111–124Google Scholar
  21. Deibel D, Daly K (2007) Zooplankton processes in Arctic and Antarctic polynyas. In Smith WO, Barber DG (Eds) Arctic and Antarctic polynyas, Amsterdam, pp 271–322Google Scholar
  22. Dvoretsky VG, Dvoretsky AG (2009) Life cycle of Oithona similis (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Kola Bay (Barents Sea). Mar Biol 156:1433–1446Google Scholar
  23. Fetzer I (2004) The influence of river discharge on the structure of benthic communities: a larval approach. PhD thesis, Bremen University, pp 1–242Google Scholar
  24. Forest A, Sampei M, Makabe R, Sasaki H, Barber D, Gratton Y, Wassmann P, Fortier L (2008) The annual cycle of particulate organic export in Franklin Bay (Canadian Arctic): environmental control and food web implications. J Geophys Res 113:C03S05Google Scholar
  25. Geynrikh AK, Kosobokova KN, Rudyakov YA (1983) Seasonal variations in the vertical distribution of some prolific copepods of the Arctic basin. Can Transl Fish Aquat Sci 4925:1–22Google Scholar
  26. González HE, Smetacek V (1994) The possible role of the cyclopoid copepod Oithona in retarding vertical flux of zooplankton faecal material. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 113:233–246Google Scholar
  27. Grønvik S, Hopkins CCE (1984) Ecological investigations of the zooplankton community of Balsfjorden, Northern Norway: generation cycle, seasonal vertical distribution and seasonal variations in body weight and carbon and nitrogen content of the copepod Metridia longa (Lubbock). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 80:93–107Google Scholar
  28. Gudmundsdóttir R (2008) Pseudocalanus in Svalbard waters: identification and distribution patterns of two sibling copepod species. Dissertation, University of TromsøGoogle Scholar
  29. Hagen W (1999) Reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations of polar zooplankton. Invertebr Reprod Dev 36:25–34Google Scholar
  30. Hegseth EN (1992) Sub-ice algal assemblages of the Barents Sea: species composition, chemical composition, and growth rates. Polar Biol 17:235–241Google Scholar
  31. Herman AW (1983) Vertical patterns of copepods, chlorophyll, and production in northeastern Baffin Bay. Limnol Oceanogr 28:709–719Google Scholar
  32. Hirche HJ (1991) Distribution of dominant calanoid copepod species in the Greenland Sea during late fall. Polar Biol 11:351–362Google Scholar
  33. Hirche HJ (1996a) Diapause in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Ophelia 44:129–143Google Scholar
  34. Hirche HJ (1996b) The reproductive biology of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus—a review. Ophelia 44:111–128Google Scholar
  35. Hirche HJ (1997) The life cycle of the copepod Calanus hyperboreus in the Greenland Sea. Mar Biol 128:607–618Google Scholar
  36. Hirche HJ, Kattner G (1993) Egg production and lipid content of Calanus glacialis in spring: indication of a food-dependent and food-independent reproductive mode. Mar Biol 117:615–622Google Scholar
  37. Hirche HJ, Kosobokova KN (2003) Early reproduction and development of dominant calanoid copepods in the sea ice zone of the Barents Sea—need for a change of paradigms? Mar Biol 143:769–781Google Scholar
  38. Hirche HJ, Kwasniewski S (1997) Distribution, reproduction and development of Calanus species in the Northeast water in relation to environmental conditions. J Mar Syst 10:299–317Google Scholar
  39. Hirche HJ, Niehoff B (1996) Reproduction of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus in the Greenland Sea—field and laboratory observations. Polar Biol 16:209–219Google Scholar
  40. Hirche HJ, Meyer U, Niehoff B (1997) Egg production of Calanus finmarchicus: effect of temperature, food and season. Mar Biol 127:609–620Google Scholar
  41. Hop H, Falk-Petersen S, Svendsen H, Kwasniewski S, Pavlov V, Pavlova O, Søreide JE (2006) Physical and biological characteristics of the pelagic system across Fram Strait to Kongsfjorden. Prog Oceanogr 71:182–231Google Scholar
  42. Hopkins CC, Tande KS, Grønvik S, Sargent JR (1984) Ecological investigations of the zooplankton community of Balsfjorden, northern Norway: an analysis of growth and overwintering tactics in relation to niche and environment in Metridia longa (Lubbock) Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus), Thysanoessa inermis (Krsyer) and T. raschi (M. Sars). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 82:11–99Google Scholar
  43. Horner RA, Murphy D (1985) Species composition and abundance of zooplankton in the nearshore Beaufort Sea in winter—spring. Arctic 38:201–209Google Scholar
  44. Kaartvedt S, Dale T, Bagøien E, Viken T (2002) Bi-modal vertical distribution of the carnivorous copepod Paraeuchaeta norvegica. J Plankton Res 24:155–158Google Scholar
  45. Kiko R, Scheltz A, Schünemann H, Werner I (2004) Arctic sea-ice biology in winter. In: Schauer U, Kattner G (eds) The expedition ARKTIS XIX/1 a, b and XIX/2 of the research vessel„POLARSTERN“in 2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch, vol 481, pp 50–54Google Scholar
  46. Kosobokova KN (1980) Seasonal changes of the vertical distribution and age composition of Microcalanus pygmaeus, Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis and O. notopus populations in the central Arctic basin. In: Vinogradov ME (ed) Biologiya Tsentralгnogo Arkicheskogo basseyna (Biology of the Central Arctic Basin). Nauka, Moscow, pp 167–182 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Kosobokova KN (1999) The reproductive cycle and life history of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea. Polar Biol 22:254–263Google Scholar
  48. Kosobokova KN, Hirche HJ (2000) Zooplankton distribution across the Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean: species inventory, biomass and vertical structure. Deep Sea Res I 47:2029–2060Google Scholar
  49. Kosobokova KN, Hirche HJ (2001) Reproduction of Calanus glacialis in the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean. Polar Biol 24:33–43Google Scholar
  50. Kosobokova KN, Hopcroft RR (2010) Diversity and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Arctic’s Canada Basin. Deep Sea Res II 57:96–110Google Scholar
  51. Kosobokova KN, Pertsova NM (1990) Biology of the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea. Biological monitoring of the coastal waters of the White Sea. IOAN SSSR, Moscow, pp 57–71 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  52. Kosobokova KN, Pertsova NM (2005) Zooplankton of the deep-water part of the White Sea at the end of hydrological winter. Oceanology 45:819–831Google Scholar
  53. Kosobokova KN, Hanssen H, Hirche HJ, Knickmeier K (1998) Composition and distribution of zooplankton in the Laptev Sea and adjacent Nansen Basin during summer, 1993. Polar Biol 19:63–76Google Scholar
  54. Kosobokova KN, Ratkova TN, Sazhin AF (2003) Early-spring zooplankton in the ice-covered Chupa Inlet, the White Sea. Oceanology 43:694–703Google Scholar
  55. Kosobokova KN, Hopcroft RR, Hirche HJ (2011) Patterns of zooplankton diversity through the depths of the Arctic’s central basins. Mar Biodiv. doi: 10.1007/s12526-010-0057-9 Google Scholar
  56. Lampitt RS (1978) Carnivorous feeding by a small marine copepod. Limnol Oceanogr 23:1228–1230Google Scholar
  57. Larson RJ, Harbison GR (1989) Source and fate of lipids in polar gelatinous zooplankton. Arctic 42:339–346Google Scholar
  58. Lischka S, Hagen W (2005) Life histories of the copepods Pseudocalanus minutus, P. acuspes (Calanoida) and Oithona similis (Cyclopoida) in the Arctic Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). Polar Biol 28:910–921Google Scholar
  59. Lischka S, Hagen W (2007) Seasonal lipid dynamics of the copepods Pseudocalanus minutus (Calanoida) and Oithona similis (Cyclopoida) in the Arctic Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). Mar Biol 150:445–454Google Scholar
  60. Madsen SD, Nielsen TG, Tervo OM, Söderquist J (2008) Importance of feeding for egg production in Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis during the Arctic spring. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 353:177–190Google Scholar
  61. Mclaren IA (1966) Adaptive significance of large size and long life of the chaetognath S. elegans in the Arctic. Ecology 47:852–855Google Scholar
  62. Nakamura Y, Turner JT (1997) Predation and respiration by the small cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis: how important is feeding on ciliates and heterotrophic flagellates? J Plankton Res 19:1275–1288Google Scholar
  63. Niehoff B, Klenke U, Hirche HJ, Irigoien X, Head R, Harris R (1999) A high frequency time series at Weathership Station M, Norwegian Sea, during the 1997 spring bloom: the reproductive biology of Calanus finmarchicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 176:81–92Google Scholar
  64. Norrbin F, Eilertsen HC, Degerlund M (2009) Vertical distribution of primary producers and zooplankton grazers during different phases of the Arctic spring bloom. Deep Sea Res II 56:1945–1958Google Scholar
  65. Percy JA (1989) Abundance, biomass, and size frequency distribution of an arctic ctenophore, Mertensia ovum (Fabricius) from Frobisher Bay, Canada. Sarsia 74:95–105Google Scholar
  66. Percy JA, Fife FJ (1981) The biochemical composition and energy content of arctic marine macrozooplankton. Arctic 34:307–313Google Scholar
  67. Pertsova NM (1963) Winter zooplankton in Velikaya Salma Strait of Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. In: Problems of the use of commercial resources of the White Sea and inland basins of Karelia. I. Akad Nauk SSSR, Moscow, pp 107–112 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  68. Pertsova NM (1974) Distribution and life cycle of Metridia longa Lubbock in the White Sea. Tr Belomorskoi biol st Mosk Gos University, Moscow, pp 14–31Google Scholar
  69. Pertsova NM (1981) Number of generations and their span in Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the White Sea. Zool Zh 60:673–684 (Canadian Translation of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 4826)Google Scholar
  70. Pertsova NM, Kosobokova KN (1996) Sex ratio, reproduction and fecundity of Pseudocalanus minutus (Krøyer) in the White Sea. Okeanologiya 36:747–755Google Scholar
  71. Pertsova NM, Kosobokova KN (2003) Zooplankton of the White Sea: features of the composition and structure, seasonal dynamics, and the contribution to the formation of matter fluxes. Oceanology 43:S108–S122Google Scholar
  72. Purcell JE, Whitledge TE, Kosobokova KN, Hopcroft RR (2010) Distribution, abundance, and predation effects of epipelagic ctenophores and jellyfish in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep Sea Res II 57:127–135Google Scholar
  73. Raskoff KA, Purcell JE, Hopcroft RR (2005) Gelatinous zooplankton of the Arctic Ocean: in situ observations under the ice. Pol Biol 28:207–217Google Scholar
  74. Richter C (1994) Regional and seasonal variability in the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Greenland Sea. PhD thesis, University of Kiel, pp 1–101Google Scholar
  75. Ringuette M, Fortier L, Fortier M, Runge J, Belanger S, Larouche P, Weslawski JM, Kwasniewski S (2002) Advanced recruitment and accelerated population development in Arctic calanoid copepods in the North Water. Deep Sea Res II 22(23):5081–5099Google Scholar
  76. Rudels B, Bjork G, Nilsson J, Winsor P, Lake I, Nohr C (2005) The interaction between waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas north of Fram Strait and along the East Greenland Current: results from the Arctic Ocean-02 Oden expedition. J Mar Syst 55:1–30Google Scholar
  77. Runge JA (1985) Egg production rates of Calanus finmarchicus in the sea off Nova Scotia. Arch Hydrobiol Beih (Ergebn Limnol) 21:33–40Google Scholar
  78. Runge JA, Ingram RG (1988) Underice grazing by planktonic, calanoid copepods in relation to a bloom of ice microalgae in southeastern Hudson Bay. Limnol Oceanogr 33:280–286Google Scholar
  79. Runge JA, Ingram RG (1991) Under-ice feeding and diel migration by the planktonic copepods Calanus glacialis and Pseudocalanus minutus in relation to the ice algal production in southeastern Hudson Bay. Mar Biol 108:217–226Google Scholar
  80. Sato M, Sasaki H, Fukuchi M (2002) Stable isotopic compositions of overwintering copepods in the arctic and subarctic waters and implications to the feeding history. J Mar Syst 38:165–174Google Scholar
  81. Schauer U (1995) The release of brine-enriched shelf water from Storfjord into the Norwegian Sea. J Geophys Res 100:16015–16028Google Scholar
  82. Schauer U, Fahrbach E (1999) A dense bottom water plume in the western Barents Sea: downstream modification and interannual variability. Deep Sea Res I 46:2095–2108Google Scholar
  83. Schauer U, Kattner G (2004) The Expedition ARKTIS XIX/1 a, b and XIX/2 of the Research Vessel„POLARSTERN“in 2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch 481:1–198Google Scholar
  84. Schwarz B (2004) Ocean Optics. In: Schauer U, Kattner G (eds) The expedition ARKTIS XIXl1 a, b and XIX/2 of the research vessel„POLARSTERN“in 2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch, vol 481, pp 103–107Google Scholar
  85. Smith SL (1990) Egg production and feeding by copepods prior to the spring bloom of phytoplankton in the Fram Strait area of the Greenland Sea. Mar Biol 106:59–69Google Scholar
  86. Solov’ev KA, Kosobokova KN (2003) Feeding of the chaetognaths Parasagitta elegans Verill (Chaetognatha) in the White Sea. Oceanology 43(4):555–562Google Scholar
  87. Søreide JE, Hop H, Falk-Petersen S, Gulliksen B, Hansen E (2003) Macrozooplankton communities and environmental variables in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone in late winter and spring. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 263:43–64Google Scholar
  88. Sullivan BK (1980) In situ feeding behaviour of Sagitta elegans and Eukrohnia hamata (Chaetognatha) in relation to the vertical distribution and abundance of prey at ocean Station “P”. Limnol Oceanogr 25:317–326Google Scholar
  89. Swanberg N, Båmstedt U (1991) Ctenophora in the Arctic: the abundance, distribution and predatory impact of the cydippid ctenophore Mertensia ovum (Fabricius) in the Barents Sea. Polar Res 10:507–524Google Scholar
  90. Thomas DN, Lara RL, Eicken H, Kattner G, Skoog A (1995) Dissolved organic matter in Arctic multi-year sea ice during winter: major components and relationship to ice characteristics. Polar Biol 15:477–483Google Scholar
  91. Timofeev SF (1992) Size distribution and community structure. In: Rachor E (ed) Scientific cruise report of the 1991 Arctic expedition ARK VIII/2 of RV „Polarstern“(EPOS II: Study of the European Arctic Shelf, SEASD, of the European Science Foundation). Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch, vol 115, pp 63–73Google Scholar
  92. Torres JJ, Donnelly J, Hopkins TL, Lavercraft TM, Aarset AV, Ainley DG (1994) Proximate composition and overwintering strategies of Antarctic micronektonic Crustacea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 113:221–232Google Scholar
  93. Tourangeau S, Runge JA (1991) Reproduction of Calanus glacialis in relation to an ice microalgal bloom in southeastern Hudson Bay. Mar Biol 106:227–234Google Scholar
  94. Turner JT, Graneli E (1992) Zooplankton feeding ecology: grazing during enclosure studies of the phytoplankton blooms from the west coast of Sweden. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 157:19–31Google Scholar
  95. Uchima U, Hirano R (1986) Food of Oithona davisae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) and the effect of food concentration at first feeding on the larval growth. Bull Plankton Soc Jpn 33:21–28Google Scholar
  96. Vinogradov GM, Druzhkov NV, Marasaeva EF, Larionov VV (2001) Mesozooplankton under ice in the Pechora and Kara Seas during the winter-spring period of 2000. Oceanology 41:728–735Google Scholar
  97. Walkusz W, Storemark K, Skau T, Gannefors C, Lundberg M (2003) Zooplankton community structure; a comparison of fjords, open water and ice stations in the Svalbard area. Polish Polar Res 24:149–165Google Scholar
  98. Walkusz W, Kwasniewski S, Falk-Petersen S, Hop H, Tverberg V, Wieczorek P, Weslawski JM (2009) Seasonal and spatial changes in the zooplankton community in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res 28:254–281Google Scholar
  99. Welch HE, Siferd TD, Bruecker P (1995) Population densities, growth, and respiration of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans in the Canadian high Arctic. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:520–527Google Scholar
  100. Werner I (1997) Grazing of Arctic under-ice amphipods on sea-ice algae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 160:93–99Google Scholar
  101. Werner I (2005) Living conditions, abundance and biomass of under-ice fauna in the Storfjord area (western Barents Sea, Arctic) in late winter (March 2003). Polar Biol 28:311–318Google Scholar
  102. Werner I, Martinez Arbizu P (1999) The sub-ice fauna of the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean in summer 1995. Polar Biol 21:71–79Google Scholar
  103. Weslawski JM, Kwasniewski S, Wiktor J, Zajaczkowski M (1993) Observations on the fast ice biota in the fjords of Spitsbergen. Pol Polar Res 14:331–343Google Scholar
  104. Wiebe PH, Boyd S, Cox JL (1975) Relationships between zooplankton displacement volume, wet weight, dry weight, and carbon. Fish Bull 73:777–786Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany
  2. 2.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations