Effects of abiotic factors on growth and chemical defenses in cultivated clones of Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)
- 397 Downloads
Laurencia dendroidea shows high inter- and intrapopulation variability in the amount of the sesquiterpene elatol, caused by genetic variation as well as environmental factors. To test the independent effect of physical and nutritional conditions, the growth and the levels of elatol in L. dendroidea clones were evaluated under different conditions of temperature, salinity, irradiance, and culture medium in the laboratory. Growth of L. dendroidea was clearly affected by all these factors, but elatol levels were influenced only by temperature and salinity. Better conditions for growth did not produce a similar effect on elatol production in L. dendroidea, contradicting the carbon/nutrient balance and growth/differentiation balance models. On the contrary, severe conditions of temperature and salinity promoted a decrease in elatol levels, as predicted by the environmental stress model. Our results using clones indicated that abiotic factors clearly take part in fostering chemical variations observed in natural populations, in addition to genetic factors, and can promote differential susceptibility of plant specimens to natural enemies.
KeywordsSecondary Metabolite Macroalgae Abiotic Factor Algal Biomass Chemical Defense
We are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientıfico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) for financial support. RCP, MTF, and AT thank CNPq for their Research Productivity fellowships, and DBS thanks CNPq for her PhD fellowship.
- Agardh JG (1852) Species genera et ordines algarum, seu descriptiones succinctae specierum, generum et ordinum, quibus algarum regnum constituitur. Volumen secundum: algas florideas complectens. Part 3, fasc 1:701–786Google Scholar
- Edwards P (1970) Illustrated guide to the seaweeds and seagrasses in the vicinity of Porto Aransas, Texas. Contrib Mar Sci 15:1–228Google Scholar
- Fujii MT (1998) Estudos morfológicos, quimiotaxonômicos e citogenéticos em quatro espécies selecionadas de Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) do litoral brasileiro. Dissertation, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, 173 ppGoogle Scholar
- Jormalainen V, Honkanen T (2008) Macroalgal chemical defenses and their roles in structuring temperate marine communities. In: Amsler CD (ed) Algal chemical ecology. Springer, Berlin, pp 59–90Google Scholar
- Kawai H, Motomura T, Okuda K (2005) Isolation and purification techniques for macroalgae. In: Andersen RA (ed) Algal culturing techniques. Academic Press, London, pp 133–143Google Scholar
- Luning K (1990) Seaweeds: their environment, biogeography, and ecophysiology. Wiley, New York, p 527Google Scholar
- Oliveira EC, Paula EJ, Plastino EM, Petti R (1996) Metodologias para cultivo de algas em laboratório. In: Ferrario M, Sar E (eds) Macroalgas de Interes Económico: Cultivo, Manejo y Industrialización. Universidad de La Plata, Argentina, pp 175–198Google Scholar
- Rhoades DF (1979) Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores. In: Rosenthal GA, Janzen DH (eds) Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–54Google Scholar
- Zangerl AR, Bazzaz FA (1992) Theory and pattern in plant defense allocation. In: Fritz R, Simms EL (eds) Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens, ecology, evolution and genetics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 363–392Google Scholar