Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 158, Issue 6, pp 1233–1237 | Cite as

Long-term individual identification and site fidelity of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, off California using dorsal fins

  • Scot D. Anderson
  • Taylor K. Chapple
  • Salvador J. Jorgensen
  • A. Peter Klimley
  • Barbara A. Block
Original Paper

Abstract

Mark-recapture techniques can be used to estimate white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) population abundance. These frameworks are based on assumptions that marks are conserved and animals are present at the sampling location over the entire duration of the study. Though these assumptions have been validated across short-time scales for white sharks, long-term studies of population trends are dependent on these assumptions being valid across longer periods. We use 22 years of photographic data from aggregation sites in central California to support the use of dorsal fin morphology as long-term individual identifiers. We identified five individuals over 16–22 years, which support the use of dorsal fins as long-time individual identifiers, illustrate strong yearly site fidelity to coastal aggregation sites across extended time periods (decades), and provide the first empirical validation of white shark longevity >22 years. These findings support the use of fin morphology in mark-recapture frameworks for white sharks.

Keywords

Site Fidelity White Shark Secondary Characteristic Pigmentation Pattern Individual Identifier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank J. Cornelius, M. Peterson, R. Elliot, P. Kanive, J. Barlow, K & C Chapple, L. Lamas, and B Cornapple for assistance with fieldwork, laboratory work, data processing, and editing. We are grateful to S. McAfee, J. Fitzgerald, S. Neil, B. Becker, R Theiss, E. Homer, and crew of the R.S.V. Derek M. Bayliss for vessel and logistical assistance. This project was funded by PEMREM, NOAA-Seagrant, the Sloan, Moore and Packard Foundations as a part of the Tagging of Pacific Pelagics (TOPP) program of the Census of Marine Life. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, Pacific Coast Science and Learning Center, Patricia King and Bodega Marine Laboratory inter-campus travel grants also provided financial support. The project was conducted with permits from CDFG, MBNMS, GFNMS, NOAA, NPS and under University of California, Davis animal care protocol 15024 and Stanford University animal care protocol 10765.

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Supplementary material

227_2011_1643_MOESM1_ESM.doc (22 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 22 kb)

References

  1. Anderson SD, Henderson RP, Pyle P, Ainley DG, Klimley AP (1996) White shark reactions to unbaited decoys. In: Klimley AP, Ainley DG (eds) Great white sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic, San Diego, pp 223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonfil R, Meyer M, Scholl MC, Johnson R, O’Brien S, Oosthuizen H, Swanson S, Kotze D, Paterson M (2005) Transoceanic migration, spatial dynamics, and population linkages of white sharks. Science 310:100. doi: 10.1126/science.1114898 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boustany A, Davis S, Pyle P, Anderson S, Le Boeuf B, Block B (2002) Satellite tagging––expanded niche for white sharks. Nature 415:35–36. doi: 10.1038/415035b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cailliet GM, Natanson LJ, Welden BA, Ebert DA (1985) Preliminary studies on the age and growth of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using vertebral bands. Mem Calif Acad Sci 9:49–60Google Scholar
  5. Chapple TK, Jorgensen SJ, Anderson SA, Kanive PE, Klimley AP, Botsford LW, Block BA (2011) A first estimate of white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, abundance off central California. Mar Biol (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Cliff G, van der Elst RP, Govender A, Witthuhn TK, Bullen EM (1996) First estimates of mortality and population size of white sharks on the South African coast. In: Klimley AP, Ainley DG (eds) Great white sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Domeier M, Nasby-Lucas N (2007) Annual re-sightings of photographically identified white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at an eastern Pacific aggregation site (Guadalupe Island, Mexico). Mar Biol 150:977–984. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0380-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Domeier M, Nasby-Lucas N (2008) Migration patterns of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias tagged at Guadalupe Island, Mexico, and identification of an eastern Pacific shared offshore foraging area. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 370:221–237. doi: 10.3354/meps07628 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gubili C, Johnson R, Gennari E, Oosthuizen W, Kotze D, Meyer M, Sims D, Jones C, Noble L (2009) Concordance of genetic and fin photo identification in the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, off Mossel Bay, South Africa. Mar Biol 156:2199–2207. doi: 10.1007/s00227-009-1233-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jorgensen SJ, Reeb CA, Chapple TK, Anderson SD, Perle C, Van Sommeran SR, Fritz-Cope C, Brown AC, Klimley AP, Block BA (2010) Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks. P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci 277:679–688. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klimley AP, Anderson SD (1996) Residency patterns of white sharks at the south Farallon Islands, California. In: Klimley AP, Ainley DG (eds) Great white sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Strong WR, Bruce BD, Nelson DR, Murphy RD (1996) Population dynamics of white sharks in Spencer Gulf, South Australia. In: Klimley AP, Ainley DG (eds) Great white sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias. San Diego, Academic Press, pp 401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Weng KC, Boustany AM, Pyle P, Anderson SD, Brown A, Block B (2007) Migration and habitat of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Mar Biol 152:877–894. doi: 10.1007/s00227-007-0739-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Open AccessThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scot D. Anderson
    • 1
  • Taylor K. Chapple
    • 2
    • 3
  • Salvador J. Jorgensen
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. Peter Klimley
    • 2
  • Barbara A. Block
    • 4
  1. 1.InvernessUSA
  2. 2.Wildlife, Fish and Conservation BiologyUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  3. 3.Max Planck Institute for OrnithologyRadolfzellGermany
  4. 4.Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford UniversityPacific GroveUSA
  5. 5.Monterey Bay AquariumMontereyUSA

Personalised recommendations