Phylogeography of the rock-pool copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Harpacticoida) in the northern North Atlantic, and its relationship to other species of the genus
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We investigated relationships among North Atlantic Tigriopus brevicornis populations and their relationships to Mediterranean T. fulvus and North American T. californicus, using crossing experiments and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. All T. brevicornis populations tested were interfertile, while interspecific crosses produced either no offspring or offspring that did not survive past the larval stage, with the exception of a few T. brevicornis × T. californicus crosses that produced mature adults. DNA sequencing of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) showed that samples of T. brevicornis from Iceland, the Faroes, Ireland, Scotland and Nova Scotia formed a single shallow clade. In contrast, T. brevicornis from more southern populations in France and Portugal formed a clade with substantially greater branch lengths. Tigriopus brevicornis was monophyletic, and T. brevicornis plus Mediterranean T. fulvus were together also monophyletic. The phylogeography of T. brevicornis closely mirrored that found in T. californicus, with substantially reduced interpopulation divergence at northern latitudes. The known distribution of T. brevicornis in Iceland and the Faroes is shown and dispersal mechanisms and habitat selection briefly discussed.
KeywordsNova Scotia Glacial Maximum Rocky Shore Faroe Island Chart Data
This project has been mainly financed by grants to AI from the Icelandic Research Fund and by the Sáttmálasjóður Trust Fund, which we acknowledge with gratitude. Thanks go to the students in the course Marine Ecology in the fall of 2004 for collecting samples and for taking part in investigations on habitats. We would like to single out especially Gunnar Þór Hallgrímsson, Yann Kolbeinsson and Freydís Vigfúsdóttir. Ólafur P. Ólafsson also deserves thanks for collecting specimens in Iceland, and Jörundur Svavarsson for collecting animals in Norway. The molecular portions of the study were financed by grants to SE from the US National Science Foundation (DEB-0316807 and DEB-0743472). Thanks go to J. P. McFarlane and Vanessa Knutson for assistance with initial sequencing efforts. The manuscript was greatly improved by the constructive criticism of three anonymous reviewers.
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