Marine Biology

, Volume 157, Issue 4, pp 725–735 | Cite as

Post-larval development of two intertidal barnacles at elevated CO2 and temperature

  • Helen S. FindlayEmail author
  • Michael A. Kendall
  • John I. Spicer
  • Stephen Widdicombe
Original Paper


Ocean acidification and global warming are occurring concomitantly, yet few studies have investigated how organisms will respond to increases in both temperature and CO2. Intertidal microcosms were used to examine growth, shell mineralogy and survival of two intertidal barnacle post-larvae, Semibalanus balanoides and Elminius modestus, at two temperatures (14 and 19°C) and two CO2 concentrations (380 and 1,000 ppm), fed with a mixed diatom-flagellate diet at 15,000 cells ml−1 with flow rate of 10 ml−1 min−1. Control growth rates, using operculum diameter, were 14 ± 8 μm day−1 and 6 ± 2 μm day−1 for S. balanoides and E. modestus, respectively. Subtle, but significant decreases in E. modestus growth rate were observed in high CO2 but there were no impacts on shell calcium content and survival by either elevated temperature or CO2. S. balanoides exhibited no clear alterations in growth rate but did show a large reduction in shell calcium content and survival under elevated temperature and CO2. These results suggest that a decrease by 0.4 pH(NBS) units alone would not be sufficient to directly impact the survival of barnacles during the first month post-settlement. However, in conjunction with a 4–5°C increase in temperature, it appears that significant changes to the biology of these organisms will ensue.


Dissolve Inorganic Carbon Ocean Acidification Tidal Regime Calcify Shell Barnacle Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



HSF acknowledges funding from NERC Blue Skies PhD NER/S/A/2006/14324. This work also contributes to the NERC funded program Oceans 2025 (Theme 3—Coastal and shelf processes). The authors would like to give special thanks to H.L. Wood, A. Beesley, D. Lowe and A. McEvoy for assisting with experimental operation, A. Clare for discussions and C. Widdicombe for providing L4 phytoplankton data.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen S. Findlay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael A. Kendall
    • 1
  • John I. Spicer
    • 2
  • Stephen Widdicombe
    • 1
  1. 1.Plymouth Marine LaboratoryPlymouthUK
  2. 2.Marine Biology and Ecology Research CentreUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK

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