Phylogeography of the European stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes): identification of glacial refugia
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The alternation of glacial and interglacial events during the Pleistocene has produced changes in species distribution ranges leading to bottlenecks and alterations of patterns of gene flow. The European stalked barnacle, Pollicipes pollicipes, is a sessile pedunculate cirripede that inhabits the rocky intertidal frame, from Senegal to the northwestern coast of France. In this work, we have analyzed a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for 569 individuals of P. pollicipes in order to investigate whether the shifts in climatic conditions that occurred during the Pleistocene influenced the current pattern of distribution of genetic variation of P. pollicipes. A pre-last glacial maximum pattern of demographic expansion was found, in concordance with many other North Atlantic marine species. On the other hand, three potential glacial refugia were identified: North African coasts, northwestern Iberian Peninsula and English Channel/Brittany.
Samples were collected with the help of Ramón Riveiro, Jorge L. Alcázar and other anonymous collaborators. We want to thank Dr. Galice Hoarau for precious help in focusing the paper. Dr. David Posada helped us with the NCA. Prof. Francis Juanes revised the article and corrected the English. We also want to thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. This study has been financially supported by the Xunta de Galicia (Spain), Grant SV-05-XUNTA-1.
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