Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 10, pp 2021–2031 | Cite as

Influence of emergence success on the annual reproductive output of leatherback turtles

  • Pilar Santidrián Tomillo
  • Jack S. Suss
  • Bryan P. Wallace
  • Kimberly D. Magrini
  • Gabriela Blanco
  • Frank V. Paladino
  • James R. Spotila
Original Paper

Abstract

Reproductive output of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) is affected by the stochastic nature of emergence success. Average emergence success of nests at Playa Grande, Costa Rica was 0.38 ± 0.27. Incubation temperature affected development of leatherback turtle eggs and emergence of hatchlings from the nest. We found that high temperatures reduced hatching success and emergence rate and increased embryonic mortality both early and late during incubation at Playa Grande. There was a temporal effect on emergence success that resulted in more hatchlings being produced at the beginning of the season, because of higher emergence success, than toward the end. Likewise, production of hatchlings varied from year to year. The average annual reproductive output was 252 ± 141 hatchlings per female. The 2005–2006 nesting season had the highest emergence success and produced the greatest number of hatchlings per female compared to the 2004–2005 (+120%) and 2006–2007 (+41%) seasons. However, average clutch size (62 ± 10) and clutch frequency (9.45 ± 1.63), were not different among years. Turtles that had nested a high number of years exhibited greater clutch frequency and arrived earlier to nest than turtles that had nested in fewer numbers of years. Nesting when environmental conditions favor high developmental success and emergence rate may constitute an advantageous reproductive strategy.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank field assistants and Earthwatch volunteers for their help during the data collection, especially P. Clune, C. Williams, E. Gilligan, E. Dalton, A. Hall, C. Manrique, S. Valentine and T. Dornfeld. We thank A. Sieg and anonymous reviewers for statistical assistance and comments on the manuscript. This research was financially supported by The Leatherback Trust, the Earthwatch Institute and the Betz Chair Endowment of Drexel University. Special thanks to the Goldring Marine Biology Station for accommodation and support during the field seasons. The study was approved by the Animal Care committee of Drexel University and was conducted under MINAET permits.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pilar Santidrián Tomillo
    • 1
  • Jack S. Suss
    • 1
  • Bryan P. Wallace
    • 2
    • 4
  • Kimberly D. Magrini
    • 1
  • Gabriela Blanco
    • 1
  • Frank V. Paladino
    • 3
  • James R. Spotila
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth SciencesDuke University Marine LaboratoryBeaufortUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyIndiana-Purdue UniversityFort WayneUSA
  4. 4.Center for Applied Biodiversity ScienceConservation InternationalArlingtonUSA

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