Marine Biology

, 156:1375

Phylogeography of California and Galápagos sea lions and population structure within the California sea lion

  • Yolanda Schramm
  • S. L. Mesnick
  • J. de la Rosa
  • D. M. Palacios
  • M. S. Lowry
  • D. Aurioles-Gamboa
  • H. M. Snell
  • S. Escorza-Treviño
Original Paper

Abstract

We investigate the phylogeography of California (Zalophus californianus) and Galápagos (Z. wollebaeki) sea lions and describe within-population structure for the California sea lion based on mitochondrial DNA. Fifty control-region haplotypes were found, 41 from Z. californianus and 9 from Z. wollebaeki, with three fixed differences between the two species. Ranked population boundaries along the range of Z. californianus were defined based on the Monmonier Maximum Difference Algorithm, resulting in five genetically distinct populations, two in the Pacific Ocean and three inside the Gulf of California. A Minimum Spanning Network showed a strong phylogeographic signal with two well-defined clusters, Z. californianus and Z. wollebaeki, separated by six base-pair differences, supporting the existence of two genetically distinct species with an estimated divergence time of ~0.8 Ma. Results are discussed in the context of the historical geologic and paleoceanographic events of the last 1 Ma in the eastern Pacific.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yolanda Schramm
    • 1
  • S. L. Mesnick
    • 2
  • J. de la Rosa
    • 1
  • D. M. Palacios
    • 3
    • 4
  • M. S. Lowry
    • 2
  • D. Aurioles-Gamboa
    • 5
  • H. M. Snell
    • 6
    • 7
  • S. Escorza-Treviño
    • 8
  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad Autónoma de Baja CaliforniaEnsenadaMexico
  2. 2.Protected Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA FisheriesLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric ResearchUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  4. 4.Environmental Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA FisheriesPacific GroveUSA
  5. 5.Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias MarinasInstituto Politécnico Nacional. Ave. IPN s/nLa PazMexico
  6. 6.Charles Darwin Research StationCharles Darwin FoundationGalápagosEcuador
  7. 7.Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of BiologyUniversity of New MéxicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  8. 8.Department of Biological SciencesCalifornia State University Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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