Are monoalgal diets inferior to plurialgal diets to maximize cultivation of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera?
- 167 Downloads
Temora stylifera adult copepods were fed with four different monoalgal diets and six combinations of the same cultures for 15 days. Fecundity, hatching success, number of cannibalized embryos, fecal pellet production, adult mortality and naupliar recruitment were compared, in order to find the best diet for this species. Phytoplankton species tested were Prorocentrum minimum (PRO); Isochrysis galbana (ISO); Tetraselmis suecica (TETRA) and Rhodomonas baltica (RHO) which were supplied alone or in different combinations and at various concentrations ranging from a minimum of 1 mg C L−1 day−1 to a maximum of 66 mg C L−1 day−1. Of the ten diets tested, ISO was the worst and was unable to sustain egg production and adult survival possibly because adults were unable to ingest this alga due to its small size. TETRA was also a poor food since it negatively impacted egg production and adult survival, as well as egg hatching success, possibly due to the lack of essential compounds necessary for optimal embryogenesis. RHO and PRO were the best foods inducing highest egg production, hatching success and naupliar recruitment. Even if mean egg production rates were similar to those obtained with some mixed diets, carbon intake concentrations with mixed diets were from 3 to 33 and from 6.6 to 66 times higher than with RHO and PRO given alone, respectively. Mixed diets of ISO and PRO, especially when supplied at higher concentrations (66 mg C L−1 day−1), had a negative effect on egg hatching success and adult survival, with a corresponding reduction in naupliar recruitment. On the other hand, mixed diets of TETRA and PRO promoted high naupliar recruitment but values were similar to PRO offered alone. Our results indicate that a good monoalgal diet such as RHO and PRO can be as effective as a mixed diet to sustain the mass cultivation of T. stylifera.
KeywordsFecal Pellet Adult Survival Hatching Success Calanoid Copepod Mixed Diet
We wish to thank Maria Gabriella Malzone, Cira Rico and Francesca Rinna for their help at various stages of this study, Ylenia Carotenuto, Francesco Esposito and Mario Di Pinto for their useful suggestions during the experiments. Funding for this study was provided by the Regione Campania project (DGR no. 889-30/06/2006) to IB. The experiments conducted with animals comply with the current Italian laws. The project was carried out in the framework of the MarBEF Network of Excellence ‘Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning’, which is funded by the Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems Programme of the European Communities Framework Programme (contract GOCE-CT-2003-505446). This publication is contribution MPS-09013 of MarBEF.
- Ianora A, Miralto A, Poulet SA, Carotenuto Y, Buttino I, Romano G, Casotti R, Pohnert G, Wichard T, Colucci D’Amato L, Terrazzano G, Smetacek V (2004) Aldehyde suppression of copepod recruitment in blooms of a ubiquitous planktonic diatom. Nature 429:403–407. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Knuckey RM, Semmens GL, Mayer RJ, Rimmer MA (2005) Development of an optimal micro diet for the culture of the calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis: effect of algal species and feed concentration on copepod development. Aquaculture 249:339–351. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.02.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laabir M, Poulet SA, Harris RP, Cueff A, Head RN, Ianora A (1998) Comparative study of the reproduction of Calanus helgolandicus in well-mixed and seasonally stratified coastal waters of the western English Channel. J Plankton Res 20:407–421. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/20.3.407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee CS, O’Brien PJ, Marcus NH (eds) (2005) Copepods in Aquaculture. Blackwell Publishing Ames, Iowa USAGoogle Scholar
- Lipman EE, Kao KR, Phelps RP (2001) Production of the copepod Oithona sp. under hatchery conditions. In: Book of Abstracts. Aquaculture 2001. Lake Buena Vista, FloridaGoogle Scholar
- Niehoff B, Klenke U, Hirche HJ, Irigoien X, Head R, Harris R (1999) A high frequency time series at Weathership M, Norvegian Sea, during the 1997 spring bloom: the reproductive biology of Calanus finmarchicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 176:81–92. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps176081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olivotto I, Capriotti F, Buttino I, Avella AM, Vitiello V, Maradonna F, Carnevali O (2008a) The use of harpacticoid copepods as live prey for Amphiprion clarkii larviculture: effects on larval survival and growth. Aquaculture 274:347–352. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.11.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pond D, Harris R, Head R, Harbour D (1996) Environmental and nutritional factors determining seasonal variability in the fecundity and egg viability of Calanus helgolandicus in coastal waters off Plymouth, UK. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 143:45–63. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps143045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ribera d’Alcalà M, Conversano F, Corato F, Licandro P, Mangoni O, Marino D, Mazzocchi MG, Modigh M, Montresor M, Nardella M, Saggiomo V, Sarno D, Zingone A (2004) Seasonal patterns in plankton communities in a pluriannual time series at a coastal Mediterranean site (Gulf of Naples): an attempt to discern recurrences and trends. Sci Mar 68:65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schipp G (2006) The use of calanoid copepods in semi-intensive, tropical marine fish larviculture. In: Cruz Suárez LE, Ricque Marie D, Salazar MT, Nieto López MG, Villareal Cavazos DA, Puello Cruz AC, Garcia Ortega A (eds) Advances en Nutrición Acuíscola VIII. VIII Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuicola. 15–17 Noviembre. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Léon, Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, México, pp 84–94Google Scholar