Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 5, pp 861–873 | Cite as

Urban marine ecology in southern California: the ability of riprap structures to serve as rocky intertidal habitat

  • Benjamin Pister
Original Paper

Abstract

Increasing human populations along marine coastlines has lead to increasing urbanization of the marine environment. Despite decades of investigations on terrestrial ecosystems, the effect of urbanization on marine life is not well understood. Riprap is the rocky rubble used to build jetties, breakwaters, and armored shorelines. Roughly 30% of the southern California shoreline supports some form of riprap, while 29% of the shoreline is natural rocky substrate. Astonishingly few studies have investigated this anthropogenic rocky habitat even though it rivals a natural habitat in area on a regional scale along a coastline that has been extensively studied. In this study, I compared the diversity and community structure of exposed rocky intertidal communities on four riprap and four natural sites in southern California. I ask the following questions: (1) does diversity or community composition differ between intertidal communities on riprap and natural rocky habitats in southern California, (2) if so, which organisms contribute to those differences, (3) which physical factors are contributing to these differences, and (4) do riprap habitats support higher abundances of invasive species than natural habitats? On average, riprap and natural rocky habitats in wave exposed environments in southern California did not differ from each other in diversity or community composition when considering the entire assemblage. However, when only mobile species were considered, they occurred in greater diversity on natural shores. These differences appear to be driven by wave exposure. The presence of invasive species was negligible in both natural and riprap habitats.

Keywords

Breakwater Significant Wave Height Wave Force Surf Zone Natural Rock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would especially like to thank my family, J. Pister, V. Pister, J. Pister, A. Pister, and A. Pister for their support and encouragement. My advisor, K. Roy has given much helpful advice throughout this study. This manuscript was greatly improved through discussions with M. Rivadeneira, E. Hunt, P. Dayton, R. Ambrose, P. Fenberg, and four anonymous reviewers. Several friends deserve thanks for their hard and sometimes harrowing work in the field, including: A. Poon, V. Tai, M. Martin, T. Huff, P. Fenberg, C. Catton, A. See, E. Lichtenberg, and K Hiland. M. Martin deserves special thanks for courage and fortitude on one day when it was unwise to be on the Dana Pt. Breakwater. T. Huff also exhibited her nonchalant toughness when accompanying me on the one and only time I attempted field work on a breakwater in the middle of the night. K. Whiteside and S. Murray helped with species identification. During this work I was supported by a GAAN grant, the Jeanne Marie Messier Memorial Fund, and as a NOAA California Seagrant Trainee (K. Roy, P.I.).

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

References

  1. Abbott IA, Hollenberg GJ (1976) Marine algae of California. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Airoldi L, Abbiati M, Beck MW, Hawkins SJ, Jonsson PR, Martin D, Moschella PS, Sundelof A, Thompson RC, Aberg P (2005) An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defense structures. Coast Eng 52:1073–1087. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson MJ, Underwood AJ (1994) Effects of substratum on the recruitment and development of an intertidal estuarine fouling assemblage. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 184:217–236. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(94)90006-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacchiocchi F, Airoldi L (2003) Distribution and dynamics of epibiota on hard structures for coastal protection. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56:1157–1166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00322-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker BJ, Levin LA, Fodrie FJ, McMillan PA (2007) Complex larval connectivity patterns among marine invertebrate populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3267–3272. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611651104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binns N, Remmick R (1994) Response of Bonneville cutthroat trout and their habitat to drainage-wide habitat management at Huff Creek, Wyoming. N Am J Fish Manag 14:669–680. doi: https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8675(1994)014<0669:ROBCTA>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bottin RRJ (1988) Case histories of Corps breakwaters and jetty structures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1, Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  8. Bucharth HF, Hughes SA (2006) Fundamentals of design. In: Hughes SA (ed) Coastal engineering manual. US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Bulleri F (2006) Is it time for urban ecology to include the marine realm? Trends Ecol Evol 21:658–659. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.09.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bulleri F, Airoldi L (2005) Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea. J Appl Ecol 42:1063–1072. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01096.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bulleri F, Chapman MG (2004) Intertidal assemblages on artificial and natural habitats in marinas on the north-west coast of Italy. Mar Biol (Berl) 145:381–391. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-004-1316-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bulleri F, Abbiati M, Airoldi L (2006) The colonisation of human-made structures by the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the north Adriatic Sea (NE Mediterranean). Hydrobiology 555:263–269. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-1122-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapman GA (1963) Mission Bay, a review of previous studies and status of a sport fishery. Calif Fish Game 49:31–43Google Scholar
  14. Chapman MG (2003) Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: effects of urbanization on biodiversity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 264:21–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps264021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapman MG (2006) Intertidal seawalls as habitats for molluscs. J Molluscan Stud 72:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chapman MG, Bulleri F (2003) Intertidal seawalls—new features of landscape in intertidal environments. Landsc Urban Plan 62:159–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00148-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark WC, Lovejoy TE, Jorling T, O’Malley R (2002) The state of the nations ecosystems. The Heinz Center, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarke KR (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust J Ecol 18:117–143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.1993.tb00438.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clynick BG (2006) Assemblages of fish associated with coastal marinas in north-western Italy. J Mar Biol Assoc UKGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis N, VanBlaricom GR, Dayton PK (1982) Man-made structures on marine sediments: effects on adjacent benthic communities. Mar Biol (Berl) 70:295–303. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00396848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis JLD, Levin LA, Walther SM (2002) Artificial armored shorelines: sites for open-coast species in a southern California bay. Mar Biol (Berl) 140:1249–1262. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-002-0779-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dean RG, Dalrymple RA, Fairbridge RW, Leatherman SP, Nummedal D, O’Brien MP, Pilkey OH, Sturges W, Wiegel RL (1987) Responding to changes in sea level: engineering implications. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Denny M, Wethey D (2001) Physical processes that generate patterns in marine communities. In: Bertness MD, Gaines SD, Hay ME (eds) Marine community ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp 3–37Google Scholar
  24. Denny MW, Helmuth B, Leonard GH, Harley CDG, Hunt LJH, Nelson EK (2004) Quantifying scale in ecology: lessons from a wave-swept shore. Ecol Monogr 74:513–532. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/03-4043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eversham BC, Roy DB, Telfer MG (1996) Urban, industrial and other manmade sites as analogues of natural habitats for Carabidae. Ann Zool Fenn 33:149–156Google Scholar
  26. Forstall RL (1996) Populations of states and counties of the United States: 1790–1990. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  27. Foster MS, Harrold C, Hardin DD (1991) Point vs photo quadrat estimates of the cover of sessile marine organisms. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 146:193–203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(91)90025-R CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glasby TM, Connell SD (1999) Urban structures as marine habitats. Ambio 28:595–598Google Scholar
  29. Glasby TM, Connell SD, Holloway MG, Hewitt CL (2007) Nonindigenous biota on artificial structures: could creation facilitate biological invasions? Mar Biol (Berl) 151:887–895. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0552-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jonsson PR, Granhag L, Moschella PS, Aberg P, Hawkins SJ, Thompson RC (2006) Interactions between wave action and grazing control the distribution of intertidal macroalgae. Ecol 87:1169–1178. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[1169:IBWAAG]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kovach (1996) Saltwater fishing in California. Marketscope Books, Aptos, CAGoogle Scholar
  32. Lande R (1996) Statistics and partitioning of species diversity, and similarity among multiple communities. Oikos 76:5–13. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/3545743 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lindberg DR, Estes JA, Warheit KI (1998) Human influences on trophic cascades along rocky shores. Ecol Appl 8:880–890. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0880:HIOTCA]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Love MS, Schroeder DM, Nishimoto MM (2003) The ecological role of oil and gas production platforms and natural outcrops on fishes in southern and central California: a synthesis of information. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Research Division, OCS Study MMS 2003-032, Seattle, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  36. Magurran AE (2004) Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Science, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  37. Maloney E, Fairey R, Lyman A Reynolds, Kyle (2006) Introduced aquatic species in California coastal water. Final report. California Department of Fish and Game Office of Spill Prevention and Response, SacramentoGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin D, Bertasi F, Colangelo MA, de Vries M, Frost M, Hawkins SJ, Macpherson E, Moschella PS, Satta MP, Thompson RC, Ceccherelli VU (2005) Ecological impact of coastal defense structures on sediment and mobile fauna: evaluating and forecasting consequences of unavoidable modifications of native habitats. Coast Eng 52:1027–1051. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McCarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White KS (2001) Climate Change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. McCune B, Grace JB (2002) Analysis of ecological communities. MjM Software Design, Glenden Beach, ORGoogle Scholar
  41. McDonnell MJ, Pickett STA, Groffman P, Bohlen P, Pouyat RV, Zipperer WC, Parmelee RW, Carreiro MM, Medley K (1997) Ecosystem processes along an urban-to-rural gradient. Urban Ecosyst 1:21–36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014359024275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moore HB (1939) The colonization of a new rocky shore at Plymouth. J Anim Ecol 8:29–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/1251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Morris RH, Abbott DP, Haderlie EC (1980) Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Moschella PS, Abbiati M, Aberg P, Airoldi L, Anderson JM, Bacchiocchi F, Bulleri F, Dinesen GE, Frost M, Gacia E, Granhag L, Jonsson PR, Satta MP, Sundelof A, Thompson RC, Hawkins SJ (2005) Low-crested coastal defense structures as artificial habitats for marine life: using ecological criteria in design. Coast Eng 52:1053–1071. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Murray SN, Fernandez L, Zertuche-Gonzalez JA (2005) Status, environmental threats, and policy considerations for invasive seaweeds for the Pacific Coast of North America. Commission on Environmental Cooperation, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  46. Murray SN, Ambrose RF, Dethier MN (2006) Monitoring rocky shores. University of California Press, Los AngelesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Niemela J (1999) Ecology and urban planning. Biodivers Conserv 8:119–131. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008817325994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oliver I, Beattie AJ (1996) Invertebrate morphospecies as surrogates for species: a case study. Conserv Biol 10:99–109. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10010099.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Osborn D (2005) Rocky intertidal community structure on different substrates. PhD Thesis, Santa Cruz, CAGoogle Scholar
  50. Pianka ER (1966) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: a review of concepts. Am Nat 100:33–46. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/282398 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pinn EH, Mitchell K, Corkill J (2005) The assemblages of groynes in relation to substratum age, aspect and microhabitat. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 62:271–282. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2004.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pombo OA, Escofet A (1996) Effect of exploitation on the limpet Lottia gigantea: a field study in Baja California (Mexico) and California (USA). Pac Sci 50:393–403Google Scholar
  53. Rader WL (1998) Faunal list of shelled marine mollusks inhabiting the northern jetty, Marina del Rey, Los Angeles County, California. Festivus 30:105–112Google Scholar
  54. Rasband W (2005) Image J. US National Institutes of Health, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  55. Rebele F (1994) Urban ecology and special features of urban ecosystems. Glob Ecol Biogeogr Lett 4:173–187. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2997649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reish DJ (1964) Discussion of the Mytilus californianus community on newly constructed rock jetties in southern California. Veliger 7:95–101Google Scholar
  57. Ricketts EF, Calvin J, Hedgpeth JW, Phillips DW (1985) Between Pacific tides. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  58. Sammarco PW, Atchison AD, Boland GS (2004) Expansion of coral communities within the Northern Gulf of Mexico via offshore oil and gas platforms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 280:129–143. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps280129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Secord D, Muller-Parker G (2005) Symbiont distribution along a light gradient within an intertidal cave. Limnol Oceanogr 50:272–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith JM (2003) Surf zone hydrodynamics. In: Demirbilek Z (ed) Coastal engineering manual. US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC, p 42Google Scholar
  61. Southward AJ, Orton JH (1954) The effects of wave action on the distribution and numbers of the commoner plants and animals living on the Plymouth Breakwater. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 33:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Team RDC (2005) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  63. Tyrrell MC, Byers JE (2007) Do artificial substrates favor nonindigenous fouling species over native species? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 342:54–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Valentine JW (1966) Numerical analysis of marine molluscan ranges on the extratropical north-eastern Pacific shelf. Limnol Oceanogr 11:198–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vermeij GJ (1993) A natural history of shells. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  66. Wasson K, Fenn K, Pearse JS (2005) Habitat differences in marine invasions of central California. Biol Invasions 7:935–948. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-004-2995-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wilkinson SB, Zheng W, Allen JR, Fielding NJ, Wanstall VC, Russell G, Hawkins SJ (1996) Water quality improvements in Liverpool docks: the role of filter feeders in algal nutrient dynamics. Mar Ecol (Berl) 17:197–211. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.1996.tb00501.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zuccarello GC, West J, Rueness J (2002) Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan red alga Caulacanthus ustulatus (Caulacanthaceae, Gigartinales). Phycol Res 50:163–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2002.tb00147.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2009

Open AccessThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cabrillo National MonumentNational Park ServiceSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations