Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 4, pp 597–610 | Cite as

Genetic structure of the high dispersal Atlanto-Mediterreanean sea star Astropecten aranciacus revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci

  • Deborah E. ZulligerEmail author
  • S. Tanner
  • M. Ruch
  • G. Ribi
Original Paper


To investigate the impact of potential marine barriers on gene-flow in high dispersal marine invertebrates, we assessed the population genetic structure of the sea star Astropecten aranciacus. Samples were obtained from nine locations within the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea including populations east of the Siculo-Tunisian Strait. We obtained both DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial control region and genotype data at four microsatellite loci. Both markers were highly polymorphic and showed a great level of genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between populations (FST) was in general low, particularly for nuclear data, as is often the case in high dispersal marine invertebrates. Nevertheless, both marker sets indicated a significant genetic differentiation of the population from the island of Madeira to most other populations. Our results also demonstrate a clear pattern of isolation-by-distance supported by both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Therefore, we conclude that larval dispersal of A. aranciacus is somewhat limited even within the basins of the Atlantic, the west Mediterranean and the east Mediterranean. Microsatellite loci further revealed genetic differentiation between the three basins; however, it is not clear whether this is truly caused by marine barriers. Genetic differentiation between basins might also be a result of isolation-by-distance allowing for any grouping to be significant as long as geographical neighbors are clustered together. Although levels of genetic differentiation were less pronounced in microsatellite data, both datasets were coherent and revealed similar patterns of genetic structure in A. aranciacus.


Genetic Differentiation Microsatellite Locus Allelic Richness Microsatellite Data Significant Genetic Differentiation 



We thank Luigia Santella, Teresa Cerveira Borges and the BIOPESCAS team (CCMAR, University of Algarve), Paulo Morais, Martin von Arx, Heinz Maag and Till Danckwart for providing specimens from Gaeta, Naples, Faro, Banyuls, Muravera and Cres. Santi Diliberto and Susanna Tassis enabled further sampling in Greece. Thomas Bucher, Andy Pemberton, Heinz Maag and Marco Bernasconi all provided lab and technical support. We are grateful for the assistance with data analyses that we received from Peter Wandeler, Tony Wilson and Rob Toonen and for helpful suggestions from anonymous reviewers. This project was funded in part by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Supplementary material

227_2008_1111_MOESM1_ESM.doc (452 kb)
Electronic supplementary material (DOC 452 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah E. Zulliger
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Tanner
    • 1
  • M. Ruch
    • 1
  • G. Ribi
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoological Museum of the University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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