Rates of routine respiration (RR, μl O2 fish−1 h−1) and total ammonia nitrogen excretion (ER, μg NH4–N + NH3–N fish−1 h−1) were measured on larval and juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to ascertain how energy losses due to metabolism were influenced by temperature (T), dry body mass (MD, mg) and specific growth rate (SGR, % per day). RR and ER increased with MD according to y = a · MDb with b-values of 0.96, 0.98, 1.14, and 0.89, 0.78, 0.74, respectively, at 10, 7, and 4°C, respectively. Multiple regressions explained 98% of the variability in the combined effects of MD and T on RR and ER in larval haddock: RR = 0.97 · MD0.98 · e0.092 · T; ER = 0.06 · MD0.79 · e0.092 · T. In young juvenile (24–30 mm standard length) haddock, RR tended to decline (P = 0.06) and ER significantly declined (P = 0.02) with increasing SGR. O:N ratios significantly increased with increasing SGR suggesting that N was spared in relatively fast-growing individuals. Our results for young larval and juvenile haddock suggest: (1) nearly isometric scaling of RR with increasing body size, (2) allometric scaling of ER with increasing body size, (3) Q10 values of 2.5 for both RR and ER, (4) metabolic differences in substrate utilization between relatively fast- and slow-growing individuals, and (5) that rates of routine energy loss and growth were not positively related. The measurements in this study will provide robust parameter estimates for individual-based models that are currently being utilized to investigate how variability in climatic forcing influences the vital rates of early life stages of haddock. Our results also stress that inter-individual differences in rates of energy loss should not be overlooked as a factor influencing growth variability among individuals.
Specific Growth Rate Early Life Stage Total Ammonia Nitrogen Food Consumption Rate Melanogrammus Aeglefinus
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We would like to thank the employees of the US NOAA NMFS Narragansett Marine Laboratory for the use of equipment and rearing facilities. We are particularly grateful to E. Davies and P. Samson for maintaining the haddock broodstock and rearing the haddock early life stages. We would also like to thank M.-L. Dickson for her help with the MicroOxymax dual gas respirometer, and E. Caldarone and J. Specker for their help with laboratory analyses. Valuable comments were received from three anonymous reviewers. The research was funded by US NOAA NMFS Cooperative Marine Education and Research Program (#NA04NMF4550377) awarded to DAB and MAP. Partial funding for this research was received from the “GLOBEC-Germany” program (FKZ 03FO320E).
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