Marine Biology

, Volume 155, Issue 2, pp 205–210 | Cite as

Current and historic distribution and abundance of the inarticulated brachiopod, Lingula reevii Davidson (1880), in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

  • Cynthia L. Hunter
  • Emily Krause
  • John Fitzpatrick
  • John Kennedy
Original Paper


The inarticulated brachiopod, Lingula reevii Davidson (1880) is a filter-feeding invertebrate that burrows vertically in sandy or mixed sediments. Its only recorded occurrence is from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, southern Japan, and Ambon, Indonesia. Past surveys of Kaneohe Bay populations suggested a distinct decrease in abundance following the diversion of sewage effluent from the bay in 1978/1979. In the summer of 2004 and 2007, visual surveys were conducted in areas of historical L. reevii abundance as well as in areas appearing to have suitable habitat. In 2004, approximately 2,950 m2 at 20 sites within the bay were surveyed using quantitative belt transecting methods. A maximum density of 4 Lingula/m2 was observed, a decrease from previous maximum estimates of 500 individuals/m2 (Worcester, Dissertation, Zoology Department, University of Hawai′i, pp 49, 1969) and 100 individuals/m2 (Emig, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 52:47–61, 1981). When these 20 sites were revisited in 2007, many had fewer or no L. reevii; therefore, broader scale presence/absence surveys were conducted at 16 additional sites in the bay (also surveyed in 2004). The highest density of L. reevii found in 2007 was 0.94 individuals/m2. The continued decline in abundance of L. reevii in Kaneohe Bay may be due, in addition to decreased organic enrichment from diversion of sewage discharge almost 30 years ago, to the more recent reduction of suitable habitat by the invasion of mat-forming alien algae species.


Particulate Organic Carbon Reef Flat Reef Slope Sewage Discharge Invasive Alga 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was conducted as part of the University of Hawaii’s Field Problems in Marine Biology course, Spring, 2004 and 2007. We thank D. Strang, S. Maynard, J. Ball, and the very helpful staff and students at Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology for their invaluable logistical and academic support and for use of the NSF Lab facilities. We also thank R. A. Kinzie III and J. H. Brock for constructive comments on the draft manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia L. Hunter
    • 1
  • Emily Krause
    • 1
  • John Fitzpatrick
    • 1
  • John Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Hawaii, Biology ProgramHonoluluUSA

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