Levels of intra-host and temporal sequence variation in a large CO1 sub-units from Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (Rudolphi 1809) (Nematoda: Anisakisdae): implications for fisheries management
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This paper is the first to address the suitability and potential of the cytochrome oxidase-1 (CO1) region of the parasitic marine nematode Anisakis simplex sensu stricto as a genetic marker. A. simplex s.s. is an ubiquitous parasite of many marine organisms and has been used as a ‘biological tag’ for population studies of pelagic fish stocks. The CO1 marker informs not only about nematode population structure but also about its hosts. The large CO1 sub-unit (∼800 bp) was analysed from third stage larvae of A. simplex s.s. from Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L. caught off the north-west coast of Scotland. In total 161 A. simplex s.s.CO1 sequences were analysed from 37 herring that represented three spawning periods over 2 years. Overall very high haplotype and low nucleotide diversities were observed (h = 0.997 and π = 0.008, respectively). These results are in keeping with studies investigating parasitic nematodes of ungulates and are symptomatic of the high rate of substitutions accumulated by mtDNA and effective dispersal strategies of the parasite. The Tamura-Nei I + Г (Г = 1.2243) model of nucleotide substitution best suited the present data which were dominated by a high thymine bias and associated transitions. Large within population differences were highlighted by hierarchal AMOVAs with little variation related to spawning events or years which may indicate localised temporal stability. Temporal homogeneity in the CO1 gene coupled with the ubiquitous and widespread nature of the parasite indicates both the potential and limitations for its incorporation in stock-separation studies of its hosts.
KeywordsHigh Mutation Rate Marine Nematode High Haplotype Diversity Large Effective Population Size Anisakiasis
We are grateful to the FRS staff for collecting and processing the samples that made this study possible and all our colleagues on the WESTHER project, co-ordinated by E. M. C. Hatfield. Funding was provided by the EU Framework 5th contract QLRT-2002–01056.
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