Marine Biology

, Volume 150, Issue 1, pp 121–129

Growth and development of nauplii and copepodites of the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa from southern Europe (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) under saturating food conditions

  • Sérgio Miguel Leandro
  • Peter Tiselius
  • Henrique Queiroga
Research Article

Abstract

A temperature-dependent growth model is presented for nauplii and copepodites of the estuarine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from southern Europe (Portugal). Development was followed from egg to adult in the laboratory at four temperatures (10, 15, 18 and 22°C) and under saturating food conditions (>1,000 μg C l−1). Development times versus incubation temperature were fitted to a Belehradek’s function, showing that development times decreased with increasing incubation temperature: at 10°C, A. tonsa need 40.3 days to reach adult stage, decreasing to 8.9 days when reared at 22°C. ANCOVA (homogeneity of slopes) showed that temperature (P<0.001) and growth phase (P<0.01) had a significant effect on the growth rate. Over the range of temperatures tested in this study, highest weight-specific growth rates were found during naupliar development (NI–NVI) and varied from 0.185 day−1 (10°C) to 0.880 day−1 (22°C) with a Q10 equal to 3.66. During copepodite growth (CI–CV), the weight-specific growth rates ranged from 0.125 day−1 (10°C) to 0.488 day−1 (22°C) with a Q10 equal to 3.12. The weight-specific growth rates (g) followed temperature (T) by a linear relationship and described as ln g=−2.962+0.130 T (r2=0.99, P<0.001) for naupliar stages and ln g=−3.134+0.114T (r2=0.97, P<0.001) for copepodite stages. By comparing in situ growth rates (juvenile growth and fecundity) for A. tonsa taken from the literature with the temperature-dependent growth model defined here we suggest that the adult females of A. tonsa are more frequently food limited than juveniles.

Keywords

Postembryonic development times Somatic growth Weight-specific growth rates Acartia tonsa Temperature-dependent growth model Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) 

References

  1. Ambler JW (1985) Seasonal factors affecting egg production and viability of eggs of Acartia tonsa Dana from East Lagoon, Galveston, Texas. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 20:743–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beckmann BR, Peterson WT (1986) Egg production by Acartia tonsa in Long Island Sound. J Plankton Res 8(5):917–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellantoni DC, Peterson WT (1987) Temporal variability in egg production rates of Acartia tonsa Dana in Long Island Sound. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 107:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berggreen U, Hansen B, Kiørboe T (1988) Food size spectra, ingestion and growth of the copepod Acartia tonsa during development: implications for determination of copepod production. Mar Biol 99:341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castro-Longoria E, Williams JA (1999) The production of subitaneous and diapause eggs: a reproductive strategy for Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda: Calanoida) in Southampton Water, UK. J Plankton Res 21(1):65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cervetto G, Gaudy R, Pagano M (1999) Influence of salinity on the distribution of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda, Calanoida). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 239:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Durbin EG, Durbin AG (1978) Length and weight relationships of Acartia clausi from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Limnol Oceanogr 40:860–867Google Scholar
  8. Durbin AG, Durbin EG (1981) Standing stock and estimated production rates of phytoplankton and zooplankton in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Estuaries 4:24–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Durbin EG, Durbin AG, Smayda TJ, Verity PG (1983) Food limitation of production by adult Acartia tonsa in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Limnol Oceanogr 28:1199–1213Google Scholar
  10. Escaravage V, Soetaert K (1995) Secondary production of the brackish copepod communities and their contribution to the carbon fluxes in the Westerschelde estuary (The Netherlands). Hydrobiologia 311:103–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fernández F (1979) Nutrition studies in the nauplius larva of Calanus pacificus (Copepoda: Calanoida). Mar Biol 53:131–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grice GD, Marcus NH (1981) Dormant eggs of marine copepods. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 19:125–140Google Scholar
  13. Hart RC (1990) Copepod post-embryonic durations: pattern, conformity and predictability. The realities of isochronal and equiproportional development, and trends in the copepod-naupliar duration ratio. Hydrobiologia 206:175–205Google Scholar
  14. Heinle DR (1966) Production of a calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa, in the Patuxent River estuary. Chesap Sci 7:59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hirst AG, Bunker AJ (2003) Growth of marine planktonic copepods: global rates and patterns in relation to chlorophyll a, temperature, and body weight. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1988–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang C, Uye S, Onbé T (1993) Geographic distribution, seasonal life cycle, biomass and production of a planktonic copepod Calanus sinicus in the Inland Sea of Japan and its neighboring Pacific Ocean. J Plankton Res 15(1):1229–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeffries HP (1967) Saturation of estuarine zooplankton by congeneric associates. In: Lauff GM (ed) Estuaries. American Association for the Advancement of Science Publication, No. 83, Washington, pp 500–508Google Scholar
  18. Kiørboe T, Sabatini M (1995) Scalling of fecundity, growth and development in marine planktonic copepods. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 120:285–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kiørboe T, Mohlenberg F, Riisgard HU (1985) In situ feeding rates of planktonic copepods: a comparison of four methods. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 88(1):67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klein Breteler WCM, Schogt N, Meer JVD (1994) The duration of copepod life stages estimated from stage-frequency data. J Plankton Res 16(8):1039–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klein Breteler WCM, Schogt N, Baas M, Schouten S, Kraay GW (1999) Trophic upgrading of food quality by protozoans enhancing copepod growth: role of essential lipids. Mar Biol 135:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kleppel GS (1992) Environmental regulation of feeding and egg production by Acartia tonsa off Southen California. Mar Biol 112:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kleppel GS, Burkart CA, Houchin L (1998) Nutrition and the regulation of egg production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Limnol Oceanogr 43:1000–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koski M, Klein Breteler WCM (2003) Influence of diet on copepod survival in the laboratory. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 264:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koski M, Klein Breteler WCM, Schogt N (1998) Effect of food quality on rate of growth and development of the pelagic copepod Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda, Calaoida). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 170:169–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lance J (1963) The salinity tolerance of some estuarine plankton copepods. Limnol Oceanogr 8:440–449Google Scholar
  27. Lance J (1964) Feeding of zooplankton in diluted sea-water. Nature 4914:100–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Landry MR (1975) The relationship between temperature and the development of life stages of the marine copepod Acartia clausi Giesbr. Limnol Oceanogr 20:854–857Google Scholar
  29. Landry MR (1983) The development of marine calanoid copepods with a comment on the isochronal rule. Limnol Oceanogr 28:614–624Google Scholar
  30. Marcus NH (1991) Planktonic copepods in a sub-tropical estuary: seasonal patterns in the abundance of adults, copepodites, nauplii, and eggs in the sea-bed. Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 181:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marques SC, Azeiteiro UM, Marques JC, Neto JM, Pardal MA (2006) Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities in a temperate estuary: spatial and temporal patterns. J Plankton Res 28(3):297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mauchline J (1998) The biology of calanoid copepods. Adv Mar Biol 33:1–707Google Scholar
  33. McLaren IA (1963) Effects of temperature on growth of zooplankton, and the adaptive value of vertical migration. J Fish Res Bd Can 20:685–727Google Scholar
  34. McLaren IA (1965) Some relationships between temperature and egg size, body size, development rate, and fecundity, of the copepod Pseudocalanus. Limnol Oceanogr 10:528–538Google Scholar
  35. McManus GB, Foster CA (1998) Seasonal and fine-scale spatial variations in egg production and tryacylglycerol content of the copepod Acartia tonsa in a river-dominated estuary and its coastal plume. J Plankton Res 20(4):767–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller CB, Johson JK, Heinle DR (1977) Growth rules in the marine copepod genus Acartia. Limnol Oceanogr 22:326–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morgado FMR (1997) Ecologia do zooplâncton da Ria de Aveiro. Caracterização espacio—temporal, transporte longitudinal e dinâmica tidal, nictemeral e lunar. PhD Thesis, University of Aveiro, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  38. Ogilvie HS (1956) Copepod nauplii (I). Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer, Zooplankton Sheet 50:1–4Google Scholar
  39. Paffenhöfer G-A (1991) Some characteristics of abundant subtropical copepods in estuarine, shelf and oceanic waters. Bull Plankton Soc Japan Special Volume: 201–216Google Scholar
  40. Paffenhöfer G-A, Stearns DE (1988) Why is Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) restricted to nearshore environments? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 42:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parrish KK, Wilson DF (1978) Fecundity studies on Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) in standardized culture. Mar Biol 46:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peterson WT (2001) Patterns in stage duration and development among marine and freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepods: a review of rules, physiological constraints, and evolutionary significance. Hydrobiologia 453(1–3):91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peterson WT, Tiselius P, Kiørboe T (1991) Copepod egg production, moulting and growth rates, and secondary production, in the Skagerrak in August 1988. J Plankton Res 13(1):131–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sabatini ME (1990) The developmental stages (Copepodids I to VI) of Acartia tonsa Dana, 1849 (Copepoda, Calanoida). Crustaceana 59:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Slater LM, Hopcroft RR (2005) Development, growth and egg production of Centropages abdominalis in the eastern subarctic Pacific. J Plankton Res 27(1):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Strathmann RR (1967) Estimating the organic carbon content of phytoplankton from cell volume or plasma volume. Limnol Oceanogr 12:411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vidal J (1980) Physioecology of zooplankton. I. Effects of phytoplankton concentration, temperature and body size on the growth rate of Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus sp. Mar Biol 56:111–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. White JR, Roman MR (1992) Egg production by the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in the mesohaline Chesapeake Bay: the importance of food resources and temperature. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 86:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zillioux EJ, Wilson DF (1966) Culture of a planktonic calanoid copepod through multiple generations. Science 151:996–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sérgio Miguel Leandro
    • 1
  • Peter Tiselius
    • 2
  • Henrique Queiroga
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Marine Ecology, Kristineberg Marine Research StationGöteborg UniversityFiskebäckskilSweden

Personalised recommendations