Effects of ethynylestradiol and bisphenol A on the development of sea urchin embryos and juveniles
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The effects of various concentrations of a synthetic estrogen, ethynylestradiol (EER), and an estrogenic compound, bisphenol A (BPA), on the development of two sea urchin species, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Strongylocentrotus nudus, were examined. At concentrations of 2.5 μM or higher of EER the zygotes did not hatch; at 0.98–1.25 μM they developed but had abnormal morphology; and at concentrations lower than 1 μM there was no effect on embryogenesis. The dose dependency was the same for both species, but more embryos of S. nudus showed exogastrulation at 3–10 μM EER. The effect of BPA on early development was less remarkable than that of EER; most embryos developed normally even in the presence of 2.5 μM BPA. The feeding larvae progressed and finally metamorphosed into juveniles even at 0.1–3 μM EER. The chemicals had opposing effects on the growth of the juveniles. A low dose of EER (0.1–1 μM) promoted growth and the average diameter of the test was bigger than that of the control group; the same dose of BPA suppressed growth and the test was smaller than that of the control group. These results show that the sensitivity and response to endocrine disrupter chemicals changes markedly during the ontogeny of sea urchins.
KeywordsCreosote Estrogenic Compound Gastrula Stage Blastula Stage Boso Peninsula
We thank Mr. Mamoru Yamaguchi (Tateyama Marine Laboratory, Marine and Coastal Research Center, Ochanomizu University) and the staff of the International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo for the animal collections. The study was partly supported through a grant of Long-range Research Initiative (LRI) of Japan Chemical Industry Association (JCIA).
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