Marine Biology

, Volume 148, Issue 6, pp 1241–1247 | Cite as

Boloceroides daphneae, a new species of giant sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Boloceroididae) from the deep Pacific

  • Marymegan DalyEmail author
Research Article


A previously known but undescribed species of sea anemone from the deep Eastern Pacific Ocean is described as Boloceroides daphneae Daly 2005. This description is based on five relatively small specimens collected on the East Pacific Rise in an area defined by latitude 8°36.687′N–12°48.719′N and longitude 103°56.467′W–104°12.531′W and depth of 2,400–2,650 m. Boloceroides daphneae is easily distinguished when alive based on its extremely large size and sinuous, deciduous tentacles. Because it is the only sea anemone reported from the deep sea with abundant spirocysts on the column and with ectodermal longitudinal muscle, preserved specimens are relatively easy to identify. The spirocysts of B. daphneae are considerably larger than those of any other species from the deep sea, and are among the largest ever reported.


Preserve Specimen Oral Disc Mesenterial Filament Deep Eastern Pedal Disc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



My participation in the FIELD cruise was facilitated by National Science Foundation support to Daphne Fautin (DEB-9978106) and Janet Voight (DEB-0072695); additional support was provided through DEB-0415277. I am grateful to the science party of the FIELD cruise and the crew of the DSV ALVIN for their enthusiasm and skill in collecting these large and unwieldy anemones. J. Childress generously donated the specimen collected in 1992 to KUNHM. Stéphane Hourdez kindly provided photographs and reports of specimens. Loans were procured with the assistance of Jochen Gerber, Ha Rim Cha, and Abby Reft. The manuscript was improved by comments from Daphne Fautin, Luciana Gusmão, Janet Voight, and two anonymous reviewers.


  1. Acuña FH, Excoffon AC, Zamponi MO, Ricci L (2003) Importance of nematocysts in taxonomy of acontiarian sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria): a statistical comparative study. Zool Anz 242:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carey AG, Stein DL, Rona PL (1990) Benthos of the Gorda Ridge axial valley (NE Pacific Ocean): taxonomic composition and trends in distribution. Prog Oceanog 24:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlgren O (1899) Über abschnürbare Tentakel bei den Actiniarien. Zool Anz 22:39–44Google Scholar
  4. Carlgren O (1900) Ostafrikanische actinien. Gesammelt von Herrn Dr. F. Stuhlmann 1888 und 1889. Mitt Naturheilkd Mus 17:21–144Google Scholar
  5. Carlgren O (1924) On Boloceroides, Bunodeopsis and their supposed allied genera. Ark Zool 17A:1–20Google Scholar
  6. Carlgren O (1949) A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. K Svenska Vetenskaps-Akad Handl, Fourth Ser 1:1–121Google Scholar
  7. England KWE (1992) Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hong Kong with additional data on similar species from Aden, Bahrain and Singapore. In: Morton B (eds) The marine flora and fauna of Hong Kong and southern China III. Proc Fourth Int Mar Biol Workshop. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp 699–705Google Scholar
  8. Fautin DG (2005) Hexacorallians of the world. (version July 2005)Google Scholar
  9. Fautin DG, Mariscal RN (1991) Cnidaria: Anthozoa. In: Harrison FW, Westfall JA (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley–Liss, New York, pp 267–358Google Scholar
  10. Francis L (2004) Microscaling: why larger anemones have longer cnidae. Biol Bull 207:116–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gage JD, Tyler PA (1991) Deep sea biology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Grassle JF, Maciolek NJ (1992). Deep sea species richness: regional and local diversity estimates from quantitative bottom samples. Am Nat 139:313–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kwietniewski CR (1898) Actiniaria von Ambon und Thursday Island Zoologische Forschungsreisen. In: Australien und dem Malayischen Archipelago von Richard Semon. Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp 385–430Google Scholar
  14. Lott J (2003) Going deep. Research Penn State Scholar
  15. Mariscal RN (1974) Nematocysts. In: Muscatine L, Lenhoff HM (eds) Coelenterate biology: reviews and new perspectives. Academic Press, New York, pp 129–178Google Scholar
  16. Mariscal RN (1984) Cnidaria: Cnidae. In: Berieter-Hahn J, Maltosy AG, Richards KS (eds) Biology of the integument, vol 1. Invertebrates. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 57–68Google Scholar
  17. Pearse VB (2002) Prodigies of propagation: the many modes of clonal replication in boloceroidid sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria). Invert Reprod Dev 41:201–213Google Scholar
  18. Presnell JK, Schreibman MP (1997) Humason’s animal tissue techniques, 5th edn. Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  19. Segonzac M, Doumenc D (1997) Cerianthus. In: Desbruyère D, Segonzac M (eds) Handbook of deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. Éditions IRFEMER, Brest, p32Google Scholar
  20. Voight JR, Zierenberg RA, McClain J, Batson P, Beers K, Daly M, Dushman B, Gollner S, Govenar B, Haney TA, Hourdez S, Liow LH, Von Damm K, Zekely J, Zelnio KA (2004) FIELD cruise to the Northern EPR: discoveries made during biological investigations from 8°37′N to 12°48′N. Ridge 2000 Events 2:22–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal BiologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations