Marine Biology

, Volume 148, Issue 5, pp 1061–1070 | Cite as

The effects of temperature and salinity on egg production and hatching success of Baltic Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida): a laboratory investigation

  • Linda HolsteEmail author
  • Myron A. Peck
Research Article


The functional response of the aspects of reproductive success of a southwestern Baltic population of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) was quantified in the laboratory using wide ranges in temperatures and salinities. Specifically, daily egg production (EP, # female−1 day−1) was determined for 4 or 5 days at 18 different temperatures between 5 and 34°C and the time course and success of hatching were evaluated at 10 different temperatures between 5 and 23°C. The effect of salinity (0 to 34 psu) on egg hatching success was also examined. The highest mean rates of EP were observed between 22 and 23°C (46.8–50.9 eggs female−1 day−1). When studied at 18 psu, hatching success of eggs increased with increasing temperature and was highest (92.2%) at 23°C. No hatching was observed for eggs incubated at low temperatures (≤12°C) that were produced by females acclimated to temperatures ≤10°C indicating a possible thermal threshold between 10.0 and 13.0°C below which only the production of diapause (or low quality) eggs exists in this population. When tested at 18°C, the hatching success of eggs incubated at 15 different salinities increased asymptotically with increasing salinity and was maximal (81.4–84.5%) between 17 and 25 psu. The high reproductive success observed over wide ranges in temperatures and salinities in this Baltic population demonstrates one of the mechanisms responsible for the cosmopolitan distribution of this species within productive, estuarine and marine habitats.


Vital Rate Hatching Success Copepod Species Prosome Length Percent Hatch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful for the help of Philipp Kanstinger, Bianca Ewest, Meike Martin and Gudrun Bening with laboratory rearing and data collection. We would also like to thank Dr. Mike A. St.John and Dr. Axel Temming and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of this manuscript. This research was funded by the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC, Germany) program by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF 03F0320E) and the German Science Foundation (DFG) AQUASHIFT program cluster Resolving Trophodynamic Consequences of Climate Change (“RECONN”, DFG # JO556/1-1).


  1. Arndt AE, Heidecke D (1973) Investigations on zooplankton in the coastal areas of the Bay of Mecklenburg. Wiss Z Univ Rostock, Math Naturwiss Reihe 22:599–616Google Scholar
  2. Arndt AE, Schnese W (1986) Population dynamics and production of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) in Darss-Zingst estuary, southern Baltic. Ophelia supplement 4:329–334Google Scholar
  3. Ban S (1994) Effect of temperature and food concentration on post-embryonic development, egg production and adult body size of calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. J Plank Res 16:721–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrends G, Schneider G (1995) Impact of Aurelia aurita medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) on the standing stock and community composition of mesozooplankton in the Kiel Bight (western Baltic Sea). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 127:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley BP (1991) Seasonal succession in Chesapeake Bay. Bull Plank Soc Jap Spec Vol 129–131Google Scholar
  6. Broglio E, Jonasdottir SH, Calbet A, Jakobsen HH, Saiz E (2003) Effect of heterotrophic versus autotrophic food on feeding and reproduction of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: relationship with prey fatty acid composition. Aquat Microb Ecol 31:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlotti F, Slagstad D (1997) Population dynamics model of interacting copepod species coupled with a 1-D model of phytoplankton dynamics in the Greenland Sea Gyre. Environ Model Assess 2:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlotti F, Wolf K-U (1998) A Lagrangian ensemble model of Calanus finmarchicus coupled with a 1-D ecosystem model. Fish Oceanogr 7:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castellani C, Lucas IAN (2003) Seasonal variation in egg morphology and hatching success in the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Acartia clausi and Centropages hamatus. J Plank Res 25:527–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castro-Longoria E (2003) Egg production and hatching success of four Acartia species under different temperature and salinity regimes. J Crust Biol 23:289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro-Longoria E, Williams JA (1999) The production of subitaneous and diapause eggs: a reproductive strategy for Acartia bifilosa (Copepods: Calanoida) in Southampton water, UK. J Plank Res 21:65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cervetto G, Gaudy R, Pagano M (1999) Influence of salinity on the distribution of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda, Calanoida). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 239:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chinnery FE, Williams JA (2003) Photoperiod and temperature regulation of diapause egg production in Acartia bifilosa from Southampton water. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 263:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chinnery FE, Williams JA (2004) The influence of temperature and salinity on Acartia (Copepoda: Calanoida) nauplii survival. Mar Biol 145:733–738Google Scholar
  15. DeYoung B, Heath M, Werner F, Chai F, Megrey B, Monfray P (2004) Challenges of modeling ocean basin ecosystems. Science 304:1463–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dutz J, Mohrholz V, Peters J, Renz J, Alheit J (2004) A strong impact of winter temperature on spring recruitment of a key copepod species in the Bornholm Basin: potential linkages to climate variability. International GLOBEC Newsletter 10.1:9–10Google Scholar
  17. Gaudy R, Cervetto G, Pagano M (2000) Comparison of the metabolism of Acartia clausi and A. tonsa: influence of temperature and salinity. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 247:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. González JG (1974) Critical thermal maxima and upper lethal temperatures for the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and A. clausi. Mar Biol 27:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gonzalez CRM, Bradley BP (1994) Salinity stress proteins in Eurytemora affinis. Hydrobiol 292/293:461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grice GD, Marcus NH (1981) Dormant eggs of marine copepods. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 19:125–140Google Scholar
  21. Halsband-Lenk C, Hirche H-J, Carlotti F (2002) Temperature impact on reproduction and development of congener copepod populations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 271:121–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hansen BW, Marker T, Andreassen P, Arashkewich E, Carlotti F, Lindeque P, Tande KS, Wagner M (2003) Differences in Life cycle traits of Calanus finmarchicus originating from 60°N and 69°N, when reared in mesocosms at 69°N. Mar Biol 142:877–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heinle DR (1969) Temperature and zooplankton. Chesapeake Sci 10:186–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heinle DR (1981) Zooplankton In: Vernberg FJ, Vernberg WB (eds) Functional adaptations of marine organisms. Academic Press, New York, pp 85–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hirche H-J (1974) The copepods Eurytemora affinis Poppe and Acartia tonsa Dana and their infestation by the stalked ciliate Myoschiston centropagidarum Precht (Peritricha) in the Schlei. Kiel Meeresforsch 30:43–64Google Scholar
  26. Hirche H-J, Meyer U, Niehoff B (1997) Egg production of Calanus finmarchicus: effects of temperature, food and season. Mar Biol 127:609–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirst AG, Bunker AJ (2003) Growth of marine planktonic copepods: global rates and patterns in relation to chlorophyll a, temperature, and body weight. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1988–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holste L (2004) The influence of temperature, salinity and feeding history on population characteristics of Baltic Acartia tonsa: egg production, hatching success and cohort development. Masters Thesis, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, p 79Google Scholar
  29. Ikeda T (1985) Metabolic rates of epipelagic marine zooplankton as a function of body mass and temperature. Mar Biol 85:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jeffries HP (1962) Succession of two Acartia species in estuaries. Limnol Oceanogr 7:354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jónasdóttir SH (1994) Effects of food quality on the reproductive success of Acartia tonsa and Acartia hudsonica: laboratory observations. Mar Biol 121:97–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim WS (1995) The effect of temperature on the egg production rates of Acartia tonsa (calanoid copepod) in Long Island Sound. Ocean Res 17:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kinne O (1970) Temperature: animals: invertebrates. In: Kinne O (ed) Marine Ecology, vol 1. Environmental factors. Part 1. Wiley-Interscience, London, pp 407–514Google Scholar
  34. Kiørboe T, Møhlenberg F, Hamburger K (1985) Bioenergetics of the planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa: relation between feeding, egg production and respiration, and composition of specific dynamic action. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 26:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klein Breteler WCM, Gonzales SR (1986) Influence of temperature and food concentration on body size, weight and lipid content of two calanoid copepod species. Hydrobiol 167/168:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koski M, Kuosa H (1999) The effect of temperature, food concentration and female size on the egg production of the planktonic copepod Acartia bifilosa. J Plank Res 21:1779–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee H-W, Ban S, Ikeda T, Matsuishi T (2003) Effect of temperature on development, growth and reproduction in the marine copepod Pseudocalanus newmani at a satiating food concentration. J Plank Res 25:261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lindley JA (1990) Distribution of overwintering calanoid copepod eggs in seabed sediments around southern Britain. Mar Biol 104:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Madhupratap M, Nehring S, Lenz J (1996) Resting eggs of marine zooplankton (Copepoda and Cladocera) from Kiel Bay and adjacent waters (southwestern Baltic). Mar Biol 125:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maps F, Runge JA, Zarardjian B, Joly B (2005) Egg production and hatching success of Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 285:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marcus NH (1984) Recruitment of copepod nauplii into the plankton: importance of diapause eggs and benthic processes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 15:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marcus NH (1996) Ecological and evolutionary significance of resting eggs in marine copepods: past, present, and future. Hydrobiol 32:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marcus NH, Lutz R, Burnett W, Cable P (1994) Age, viability and vertical distribution of zooplankton resting eggs from an anoxic basin: evidence of an egg bank. Limnol Oceanogr 39:154–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mauchline J (1998) The biology of calanoid copepods. Elsevier, Oxford, p 710Google Scholar
  45. Mclaren IA, Leonard A (1995) Assessing the equivalence of growth and egg production of copepods. ICES J Mar Sci 52:397–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller CB, Johnson JK, Heinle DR (1977) Growth rules in the marine copepod genus Acartia. Limnol Oceanogr 22:326–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Möllmann C, Kornilovs G, Sidrevics L (2000) Long-term dynamics of main mesozooplankton species in the central Baltic Sea. J Plank Res 22:2015–2038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Norberg J, DeAngelis D (1997) Temperature effects on stocks and stability of a phytoplankton–zooplankton model and the dependence on light and nutrients. Ecol Model 95:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Neill RV (1968) Population energetics of a millipede, Narceus americanus. Ecology 49:803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paffenhöfer GA, Stearns DE (1988) Why is Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) restricted to nearshore environments? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 42:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Parrish KK, Wilson DF (1978) Fecundity studies on Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida) in standardized culture. Mar Biol 46:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Runge JA (1984) Egg production of the marine, planktonic copepod, Calanus pacificus Brodsky: laboratory observations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 74:53–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. SAS Institute Inc. (1989) SAS/STAT® User’s Guide Version 6, Fourth Edition Vol. 2. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, p 846Google Scholar
  54. Sekiguchi H, McLaren IA, Corkett CJ (1980) Relationship between growth rate and egg production in the copepod Acartia clausi hudsonica. Mar Biol 58:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Støttrup JG (2000) The elusive copepods: their production and suitability in marine aquaculture. Aquacult Res 31:703–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Støttrup JG, Jensen J (1990) Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 141:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sullivan BK, McManus LT (1986) Factors controlling seasonal succession of the copepods Acartia hudsonica and A. tonsa in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: temperature and resting egg production. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 28:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tester PA (1985) Effects of parental acclimation temperature and egg incubation temperature on egg-hatching time in Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida). Mar Biol 89:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tester PA, Turner JT (1991) Why is Acartia tonsa restricted to estuarine habitats? In: Proc 4th Internat Copepod Conference, Bull Plank Soc Jap Spec Vol 603–611Google Scholar
  60. Thomas WH, Scotten HL, Bradshaw JS (1963) Thermal gradient incubators for small aquatic organisms. Limnol Oceanogr 8:357–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Watson NHF, Smallman BW (1971) The role of photoperiod and temperature in the induction and termination of an arrested development in two species of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. Can J Zool 49:855–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wellershaus S, Soltanpour-Gargari A (1991) Planktonic copepods in the very low salinity region in estuaries. Bull Plank Soc Jap Spec Vol 133–142Google Scholar
  63. White JR, Roman MR (1992) Egg production by the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in the mesohaline Chesapeake Bay: the importance of food resource and temperature. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 86:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Viitasalo M, Katajisto M (1994) Mesozooplankton resting eggs in the Baltic Sea: identification and vertical distribution in laminated and mixed sediments. Mar Biol 120:455–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Viitasalo M, Koski M, Pellikka K, Johansson S (1995) Seasonal and long-term variations in the body size of planktonic copepods in the northern Baltic Sea. Mar Biol 123:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries ResearchUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations