Life cycle of Pseudocalanus acuspes Giesbrecht (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the Central Baltic Sea: I. Seasonal and spatial distribution
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- Renz, J. & Hirche, HJ. Marine Biology (2006) 148: 567. doi:10.1007/s00227-005-0103-5
The seasonal and spatial distribution of Pseudocalanus acuspes in the Bornholm Basin (Central Baltic Sea) was studied on 16 cruises between March 2002 and May 2003 from stratified (10 m) multinet samples. The highest abundances were reached in May 2002 and April 2003 (618×103 and 869×103 ind. m−2, respectively). Ontogenetic vertical distribution was stage specific with differences of mean annual weighted mean depth >30 m between nauplii and males; it followed closely the hydrography which was characterized by a permanent halocline and a summer thermocline. The vertical distribution showed a positive correlation with salinity especially in the older developmental stages; the relationship to temperature was negative in the nauplii and copepodite stage I (CI). Most of the stages performed a seasonal migration. The consequences of the vertical distribution patterns in relation to the effects of climate and predation are discussed. A stage shift from nauplii in April/May to CIV and CV as overwintering stages indicated slow seasonal development. However, nauplii were observed all the year round, and the resulting stage structure did not allow to distinguish generations. Changes in the prosome length of females seemed to be related to the advection of water masses with different temperatures rather than to different generations. It could not be clarified whether the strong increase of nauplii and adults after an inflow event of cold, saline North Sea water in the beginning of 2003 was a result of advection or improvement in habitat conditions.