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Marine Biology

, Volume 148, Issue 3, pp 581–597 | Cite as

Spatio-temporal changes in diversity and community structure of planktonic copepods in Sagami Bay, Japan

  • Shinji Shimode
  • Tatsuki Toda
  • Tomohiko Kikuchi
Research Article

Abstract

Seasonal changes in diversity and community structure of planktonic copepods at a shelf site in Sagami Bay, Japan was studied in relation to cross-shelf interaction of species components. Seasonal mesozooplankton samples were collected from the shelf station (St. M) of the north-west part of Sagami Bay from 1995 to 1997. Vertical multi-layered samples were collected near the center of Sagami Bay (St. P) in June 1996. A total 185 copepod species were identified from the two stations. We observed a clear seasonal succession in calanoid diversity and community structure at St. M from a simple shelf water community (>11 species) during spring blooming periods to highly diverse and mixed communities (ca 20–30 species) of shelf water species coupled with various Kuroshio Current species during late summer to autumn. Cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analyses showed two distinct calanoid community groups. One group, which included samples of St. M and the surface layer of St. P, consisted of shelf water species, such as Calanus sinicus, Ctenocalanus vanus, Paracalanus spp., and Kuroshio species, such as, Canthocalanus pauper, Scolecithrix danae, etc. The other cluster was restricted to the samples collected from mid and deep layers at St. P, which consisted of meso- and bathypelagic species and Oyashio species (cold-current species, such as Neocalanus cristatus, Pseudocalanus spp., Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica). In the mid and deep layers at St. P, the population of dormant copepodid stage V (CV) of Eucalanus californicus and C. sinicus were dominant. The deep CV population of C. sinicus might be ecologically discriminated from the surface and shelf water population due to their larger body length and dormant life cycle. E. californicus was also collected at the shelf site during each spring bloom period, whereas the population might descend into the mid- and deep-layers of the central bay before summer. Our results suggest that the seasonal fluctuation of community structure in the shelf water was controlled by both physical (Kuroshio Current) and biological factors, i.e., spring bloom and ontogenetic vertical migration of E. californicus. In particular, transport and diffusion processes of Kuroshio Current in Sagami Bay played a key role in controlling the shelf water calanoid community.

Keywords

Shelf Water Kuroshio Current Calanoid Copepod Oyashio Region California Current System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We express sincere thank to Mr. Y. Asakura for the facility of the Manazuru Marine Laboratory, Yokohama National University and the captain and crew of R/V “Tansei-Maru” of Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo. We also sincerely thank to Dr. S. Taguchi, Soka University, who provided the chl. a data at St. M. Dr. A. Yamaguchi, Hokkaido University, and Mrs. Y. Tadasugi, Suido Sha Co. Ltd., kindly provided helpful comments on this manuscript. We were greatly aided by Dr. V. Kuwahara, University of California, Santa Barbara who kindly provided useful comments. Special thanks to three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on our manuscript. Thanks are extended to our colleagues and the students of Yokohama National University and Soka University for their assistance of the present study. This study was partially supported by research grant of the 21st century centers of excellence program “Environmental Risk Management for Bio/Eco-Systems” of Yokohama National University.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinji Shimode
    • 1
  • Tatsuki Toda
    • 2
  • Tomohiko Kikuchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringSoka UniversityTokyoJapan

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